Open Access Case Study

Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Plasmodium falciparum Dual Infection amongst Residents of Kaduna South in North Western Nigeria

U. O. Edet, R. U. B. Ebana, C. A. Etok, L. C. Nwamuo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25961

The possibility of co-infection between malaria and HIV in Nigeria is of tremendous public health concern. The study was designed to investigate the prevalence of malaria and HIV dual infection. A total of one hundred and fifty persons (150) showing signs and symptoms of malaria and HIV were recruited for this study following informed consent. Socio-demographic and predisposing factors were evaluated using open ended structured questionnaires. Malaria was diagnosed using Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films while antibodies to HIV type 1 and 2 HIV were detected using Abbott DetermineTM. A total of 85 participants (56.67%) were females while 65(43.33%) were males. Awareness to the etiological agents of malaria and HIV was 89(59.33%) and 65(43.33%), respectively. Out of the 150 participants, 83(55.33%) tested positive while 67(44.67%) tested negative to HIV, respectively and this was not significant (P = 0.40). The prevalence of malaria was 67(44.67%) and was not significant (P = 0.40). The prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection was 53(63.86%). Although the prevalence of the dual infection was high, it was not significant (p = 0.50). There should be an integration of both HIV and malaria control and prevention programmes in the states and country at large.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of ABO Blood Groups and Its Relationship with Malaria Parasitemia among Students of Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State

I. A. Simon-Oke, O. J. Afolabi, A. I. Itansanmi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24293

There are different reports on the increasing evidence about the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and ABO blood group, but the range is yet to be understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of malaria parasite and its relationship with ABO blood and rhesus grouping among newly admitted students of FUTA. Two millilitres (2 ml) of venous blood was collected by venipuncture using 5 ml hypodermic needles and syringes from 312 symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria students. Blood samples were immediately dispensed into Ethylene Diamine Tetra-Acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulated containers and mixed appropriately. ABO blood typing using monoclonal Antisera A, B and D was carried out on samples. The 312 samples analysed were made up of 126 (40.4%) rhesus positive and 10(3.21%) rhesus negative. In decreasing order, 60.0%, 45.3%,39.1% and 37.3% students occurred in blood group AB, O, A and B respectively. On the whole, 136(43.6%) of total samples processed, were positive for malaria parasitaemia out of which Plasmodium falciparum account for 82(60.3%). 97(46.2%) and 39(38.2%) of total male and female subjects were infected. Malaria parasitaemia seemed to be relatively high across all blood groups with groups O and AB subjects more susceptible to malaria infection. There was no significant difference in age group and sex (P>0.05) of the subjects while there was a significant difference in prevalence of malaria parasite and blood groups (P<0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Profile Patterns of Overweight and Obese Primary Care Patients in Niger Delta Region, South-South Nigeria

Idung Alphonsus Udo, Abasiubong Festus

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25876

Introduction: Overweight, obesity and their complications are major public health problems because of their effects on individuals, families and communities.

The objective of this study was to describe the lipid profile patterns of overweight and obese adult primary care patients attending the family medicine clinic of university of Uyo teaching hospital in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Methods: This was a cross –sectional descriptive study done between October 2011 and March 2012. Using a systematic sampling technique, 584 subjects aged 18-65 years were recruited, data were collected with an interview-administered structured questionnaire. Subjects were measured for height, weight, waist and hip circumference. Body mass index (BMI) and waist –hip- ratio (WHR) were calculated. Using standard procedures, a complete lipid profile was done for all overweight and obese respondents. The lipid profile patterns of respondents were classified based on adult treatment plan III (ATP III).

Results: Of the 584 respondents, 196 (36.6%) were men and 388(66.4%) were women. The mean age for men was 43.3±17.8 years while that for women was 50.2±13.6 years. The prevalence of overweight amongst men was 39.8% versus 31.7% for women; 28.0% of men were obese compared to 52.0% for women. A total of 19.9% of overweight respondents had elevated levels of total cholesterol compared to 36.2% of obese (p=0.001).There was no significant difference in the levels of serum triglycerides between the overweight and obese respondents (p=0.12). A total of 11.9% of overweight respondents had elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to 27.6% obese (p=0.001); 16.9% of overweight compared to 45.1% of obese respondents had reduced levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in the levels of serum lipids between male and female overweight and obese respondents in this study.

Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are now common in our environment. Abnormal lipid patterns are also common among the overweight and obese in our communities. Primary care physicians should now better appreciate the scope of care required by the overweight and obese patients in their care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ebola Virus Disease: Risk Perception and Gaps in Compliance with Infection Control Practices among Mortuary Workers in Two South Western Cities of Nigeria

Adamu N. Helen, M. D. Dairo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/26552

Aims: Mortuary workers and embalmers represent a high risk group for the transmission of Ebola virus disease. However risk perception that may determine adoption of behavioral preventive among this group is not documented in Nigeria. Therefore, this study aims to determine the risk perception and level of adherence to infectious disease control practices among mortuary attendants and embalmers in Ibadan and Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

Methodology: This is a quantitative study of mortuary attendants in both public and private embalming centres in Lagos and Ibadan Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ibadan and Lagos metropolis, Nigeria between October and November 2014.

Sampling Techniques and Data Collection: This study used a two stage random sampling technique to select one hundred and seven (107) mortuary attendants and embalmers from Ibadan and Lagos metropolis. A pretested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on the compliance with the use of personnel protective equipment and individual risk perception.

Results: A total of 107 respondents were interviewed. Most (86.9%) respondents had high risk perception. There were substantial low use of each type of PPE among the respondents as follows: face shields (43%), aprons (62.6%) and nose masks (55.1%). About 60.7% of the respondents believed that they were very likely to contract any infectious disease.

Conclusion: The low use of personal protective equipment, despite the high Ebola risk perception among this vulnerable group of mortuary attendants indicates a need for sustained media campaigns to maintain the successful control of the disease in these regions. Selected training and on job professional courses are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria and Typhoid Co-infection amongst Residents of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

U. O. Edet, R. U. B. Ebana, C. A. Etok, J. A. Ukanukumo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25920

Malaria and typhoid co-infection is of tremendous public health concern in Nigeria and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence of the co-infection was investigated in Uyo, the capital of Akwa Ibom State. A total of one hundred (100) blood samples were collected from patients with signs and symptoms of malaria and typhoid. These were then examined for malaria parasite using Giemsa stained thick blood films and typhoid fever using widal tube and agglutination tests. Positive widal samples with titre values greater ≥1:80 were regarded as significant and further subjected to blood culture. The socio-demographic factors examined revealed that about 43% were males and 57% were females. About 41% tested positive to malaria despite 85% admitting being on local and orthodox antimalarial therapies during presentation. A total of 64 (64%) gave significant titre (≥ 1/80) for Salmonella, however, only 11 (17%) of these gave positive blood cultures. Interestingly, those with positive blood cultures were also co-infected with malaria.