Open Access Minireview Article

Diarrhea Disease: A Concern for Developing Countries

Olabisi Mary Oluseye

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/26701

Diarrhea is a symptom associated with several gastro intestinal tract diseases. At initial stage of diarrhea illness, diarrhea often goes unnoticed and as it progresses diarrhea present with visible signs and symptoms. Diarrhea ranges from mild, moderate to severe. It can occur suddenly for just a short while (acute) and can likewise persist for a long period of time (chronic).

The rate of death among children under five due to diarrhea in developing countries is an issue of concern. This paper describes the prevalence of diarrhea, factors contributing to it and the manner of its management among mothers/caregivers in developing countries. Hence this paper will serves as a reference document for improving diarrhea prevention and management in developing countries.

Low socio economic status and lack of basic facilities such as safe water and appropriate waste disposal techniques of developing countries are responsible for prevalence of diarrhea in developing countries. In addition to this is the fact that many mothers/ care givers lack knowledge of diarrhea and its home management. Management of diarrhea should start at home in order to prevent the resultant complications which include dehydration, malnutrition and death. The recommended and effective way diarrhea can be well treated at home is through the use of Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) and continuous feeding which includes breast feeding. Studies have reported several home management practices among mothers/care givers in developing countries which are based on religious and cultural factors. However preventing diarrhea is quite safer and cost effective than treating it. There is need for all stakeholders to join efforts together to put in place all preventive strategies in developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transporting Snake Bite Victims to Appropriate Health Facility within Golden Hour through Toll Free Emergency Ambulance Service in India, Save Lives

Aruna Gimkala, G. V. Ramana Rao, Omesh Kumar Bharti

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25793

Background: Snakebite is a neglected public health issue in India. The big four venomous snakes are Cobra, Krait, Russell’s viper and Saw scaled Viper. Estimates of annual snakebite mortality in India are upto 50,000 deaths as exact figure of death due to snakebites is not known due to the fact that snakebite is not a notifiable event in India.

Materials and Methods: Computer Telephonic Integrated (CTI) data of snakebite patients transported by ambulances was obtained from Emergency Response Center of 12 states out of 16 Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) operating states for the year 2014. Data analysis was done using Micro Soft Excel. Victims who complained of snakebite and decided to avail the toll free108 Emergency Ambulance Service(EMS)were included in this study from GVK EMRI operating 10 States and 2 Union Territories that constitutes more than half of the country’s population majority of this being rural.

Results: A total of 29,231 snake bite cases were enrolled in this study period. Of these 28,206 were included in the study. Out of 28,206 patients 27,805 were admitted to hospital. Out of remaining 401 cases, 168 cases expired before the EMS ambulance arrival, 161 were given first aid and 72 cases expired before admission on way to the hospital. Type of hospitals, patients were transported and admitted to were, Government 25,029, Private 2,583 and Trust 193. Overall mean response time from base to scene was 00:22:56, at scene 00:10:06 and scene to hospital arrival was 00:47:02 (hh:mm:ss), nearer to golden hour. Out of 27,805 admitted cases 8,519 could be followed up after 48 hours, 6,050 were all right and discharged from the hospital, 1879 were stable and out of danger but still in hospital, 9 were with condition still critical-in hospital, 41required only first-aid and 359 expired after 48 hours and status could not be ascertained in 181 cases due to non availability of telephone number as108 EMS was activated by a call from a bystander.

Conclusion: The GVK EMRI ambulances that are fully equipped with all life saving equipments and drugs including anti snake venom (ASV) are able to save lives in critical condition of snakebite victims while they are called on toll free number108. This model of free transportation in emergency needs to be replicated in other parts of the country and also in high snakebite incident countries of Asia and Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Urinary Schistosomiasis in the Ikata-Likoko Area of Southwest Cameroon

Calvin Bisong Ebai, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi, Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Jude Ebah Yunga, Leopold Gustave Lehman

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/26669

Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence, parasite density and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis (US) in the Ikata-Likoko area, Cameroon.

Study Design: It was a cross-sectional study.

Study Site and Duration: The study was carried out in the Ikata-Likoko area, Cameroon from June to July 2014.

Materials and Methods: The study included 516 participants of both sexes aged 2-76 years. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic data, clinical history of the disease and environmental factors concerning potable water supply in the community. Urine samples were collected to detect and quantify Schistosoma haematobium eggs using the filtration method. Proportions and means were compared appropriately and the logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis (US).

Results: The overall prevalence and parasite density of US were 34.3% and 31 eggs/10 mL of urine respectively. US prevalence was significantly (V=0.252, P≤.001) highest in participants from Mile 14 (48.3%) and least in those from Bafia (18.0%) while egg load per 10 mL of urine was significantly (H=8.283, P =.041) highest in Bafia (50, range: 1-400) and least in Likoko (20, range: 1-200). Risk factors associated with US included: locality (OR: 4.370, 95% CI: 2.424-7.881, P≤.001), haematuria (OR: 7.387, 95% CI: 3.087-17.681, P≤.001), river as source of tap water (OR: 1.364, 95% CI: 0.623-2.985, P=.001) and lesser number of used water bodies (OR: 1.137, 95% CI: 0.397-3.255, P=.041). The presence of tap water was found to be protective (OR: 0.690, 95% CI: 0.477-0.998, P=.026) against US.

Conclusion: The Ikata-Likoko area is endemic for US. Provision of pipe-borne water, and inclusion of all age groups in the control strategies may reduce the prevalence of the disease in this area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Schistosoma haematobium Infections: Prevalence and Morbidity Indicators in Communities around Wasai Dam, Minjibir, Kano State, Northern Nigeria

Mahmud Ali Umar, Umar Aliyu Umar, Idris Hamza Usman, Abdullahi Yahaya, Sabiu Murtala Dambazau

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23448

Objectives of the Study: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and human risk factors of Schistosoma haematobium infections in Farawa and Koya dam-site communities in Minjibir Local Government Area of Kano State, Northern Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Farawa and Koya dam-site communities in Minjibir local government area of Kano State, Northern Niger, between October, 2014 and February, 2015.

Methodology: A total of 120 individuals, 60 selected randomly from each community were examined. Urine sedimentation method, urinalysis reagent strip method (Medi-Test Combi-9) and questionnaire administration were employed for detection of characteristic parasite egg, morbidity indicators and major risk factors for the infection, respectively.

Results: The overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was found to be 70.0% (80/120). The prevalence was slightly in Koya (73.0%) than 40 in Farawa community (66.6%). Infection prevalence was gender-biased in favour of males with statistical significance (P<0.05), who also manifested with macrohaematuria (75.0%), proteinuria (65.0%) and urine nitrite (15.0%), in Farawa community; macrohaematuria (75.0%), proteinuria (51.9%) and urine nitrite (38.5%) in Koya community. A high rate of macrohaematuria among younger age groups (≤35 years) in both communities might be an indication of high infection intensity which portends risk of bladder carcinogenesis at old age.

Conclusion: Public enlightenment programme with a view to reducing unprotected exposure to risk factors such as irrigation agriculture, fishing, bathing and domestic water use, and mass chemotherapy targeting younger age groups, will help curb high infection prevalence in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Phytochemicals against Species of Cladosporium and Cladophialophora

Camilla Pinheiro de Menezes, Ana Luíza Alves de Lima Pérez, Abrahão Alves de Oliveira Filho, Jéssyca Marina Carneiro Gomes dos Santos, Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27233

Cladosporium species are ubiquitous, saprobic dematiaceous fungi, associated with human and animal opportunistic infections. Cladosporium has been known to be one of the most airborne fungi causing respiratory allergies diseases, particulary asthma and rhinitis. Antifungal compounds of natural origin, such as terpenes, have received much attention in recente times. They are a promising therapeutic tool for treating fungal infections, and are known for their antimicrobial properties. 

Aims: In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of eight phytochemicals commonly found in Melissa officinalis L. essential oil (citral, (-) citronelal, (+) citronelal, β-caryophyllene, geraniol, linalool, β-cymene, α-pinene) against ten species of Cladosporium and Chadophialophora.

Methodology: Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with the phytochemicals at a concentration of 1.024 µg/mL. Microbiological screening was performed based on the broth microdilution technique.

Results: Through analysis of results, it is observed that citral showed the best activities of the as species of Cladosporium studied. 

Conclusion: Citral representing a new possibility in the arsenal of products for treatment of fungal infections caused by these fungi.