Open Access Original Research Article

Evidence of Hepatitis C Virus Antibodies amongst Pregnant Women in Parts of North Central Nigeria

E. I. Bigwan, E. D. Jatau, H. I. Inabo, S. A. Ado

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27032

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the viral hepatitis of great public health significance globally. The infection if not detected and treated at the early stage can cause liver fibrosis that may lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and the eventual death of the individual.

Aim: To determine the evidence of HCV antibodies amongst pregnant women in parts of North Central Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional.

Materials and Methods: The study was a hospital based. Eight hundred and one (801) samples were collected from consented pregnant women in the study area and were examined for anti-HCV antibody using a third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Test kit (Autobio Diagnostics, China) based on the manufacturer’s instructions. Structured questionnaires were administered to the participants and results were analyzed using SPSS version, 23.0 statistical software package.

Results: Of the 801 samples examined amongst pregnant women in this study, 3.6% were seropositive for HCV antibodies. Age group 10- 20 years had the highest seroprevalence of 6.3%, followed by the age group 31-40 with the prevalence of 3.8%, while the age group 41-50 years had the least with no detectable HCV antibodies. The result showed no significant difference (p = .53). The sero-prevalence of HCV antibodies in relation to marital status shows that the singles had the highest seroprevalence of 5.3%, followed by the married with 3.6%, while the least were recorded amongst the divorced and widowed who showed no detectable evidence of HCV antibodies in their samples. Statistically, the result showed no significant association (p = .93). Participants with non-formal education had the highest seroprevalence of 4.9%, followed by those with secondary education with a seroprevalence of 5.3% and the least was recorded among those with primary education with a seroprevalence of 2.4%. However, the result showed no significant difference (p = .78).

Conclusion: HCV antibodies is evident amongst 3.6% of the pregnant women that consented for the study and this call for health care providers and policy makers to ensure that HCV is included among the routine investigations carried out for ante-natal women in all health facilities in the area during their ante-natal care, this will help the health personnel in the provision of good health care delivery to the mothers and their babies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Semestrial Mass Administration of Praziquantel 600 mg in the Schistosomiasis High Transmission Areas of Senegal River Basin

Abdallahi Moussa, Faye Babacar, Belizaire Marie Roseline Darnycka, Tine Roger Clément, Gaye Oumar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27007

Introduction: Urinary and intestinal Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in various countries, especially in Subsaharan Africa. However, the importance of periodic administration of Praziquantel 600 mg has been confirmed by the WHO. In the Senegal River Delta, intensity and transmission rates remain high despite several yearly mass treatment campaigns.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Richard Toll (Saint-Lois, Senegal) from February 2013 to November 2015.

Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the Effectiveness of semestrial mass administration of Praziquantel 600 mg in the Schistosomiasis high transmission areas of Senegal River Basin.

Methods: Four villages were randomly divided into two groups (control and study group) comprised of two villages each. The study population consisted of children of school age (5 to 14 year old) identified in the selected villages. A first mass administration operation was carried out in the 4 villages in order to ensure an identical starting point in the entire study population. Six (06) months later, a first baseline survey provided the prevalence of Schistosomiasis in the 4 villages. It was followed by a second mass administration operation in the study group only. A second survey was performed after six months to compare the effects of bi annual mass administration with that of an annual mass administration.

Results: In respect to Schistosoma haematobium, prevalence was statistically lower after intervention: 10.8% versus 35% (p <10-3). The same effect was noted for Schistosoma mansoni: 7.9% versus 23.8% (p = <10-3). The prevalence of Schistosoma heamatobium at 6 months after the second drug administration was 0.0% while that of Schistosoma mansoni was 5.8%. In the control villages, the prevalence rate was still high after the mass administration campaign: 36.6% versus 21.7% (p = 0.011) for Schistosoma heamatobium and 15% versus 10% (p = 0.242) for Schistosoma mansoni. Our results show that a biannual administration of this molecule reduced by 100% the prevalence of S. haematobium and by more than 75% that of S. mansoni.

Conclusion: This research suggests that, in order to eliminate schistosomiasis in high transmission areas of the Senegal River Basin, praziquantel 600 mg mass administration could be renewed every 6 months.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Ectoparasites of Inmates in the Bamenda Central Prison, North West Region of Cameroon

Vincent K. Payne, Mbong E. Malla, Cedric Yamssi, Romeo N. Ghislain, Lontuo F. Robertine, Leonelle Megwi, N. Etung Kollins, Aime T. Ngouateu, Mpoame Mbida

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23122

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites of inmates in the Bamenda Central Prison, Mezam Division, North West Region of Cameroon.

Methods: Three hundred and ninety three (385 males and 8 females) inmates aged 16 to 84 years were physically examined in 14 Cells in the prison between September 2014 and February 2015. Inmates age 16 years old were examined in their Juvenile Cell.

Results: Of the 393 inmates physically examined, 335 (85.24%) were positive for one or more ectoparasites. From the results obtained, lice showed the highest prevalence of 76.33% while jiggers were the least with a prevalence of 2.29%. Out of the 385 males examined, 336 (85.49%) had ectoparasites while amongst females, only two were suffering from ectoparasites. The trend of infestation for these ectoparasites was relatively high. Multiple infestations were more common than single infestations with the adult inmates more infested than the younger ones.

Conclusion: These results showed that ectoparasites vary in relation to different Prison Cells and age of the inmates. There should therefore be need to educate the prison population on hygienic habits, reduce overcrowding amongst inmates, in order to fight effectively against these diseases in the Prison Community.

Open Access Original Research Article

How do Metronidazole Drawbacks Impact Patient Compliance and Therapeutic Outcomes in Treating Amoebiasis in Rwanda

Etienne Dusengeyezu, Justin Ntokamunda Kadima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27075

Amoebiasis is a parasitic disease with significant public health concerns in the Tropics. Metronidazole which is the first line most common prescribed medicine has shown a number of side effects difficult to tolerate by some patients, and many cases of true or erroneous treatment failure or frequent relapses have been observed among students of the University of Rwanda. This study aimed to evaluate how metronidazole side effects impact patients’ compliance, misuse practice, and therapeutic outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to 115 students who had used before or were on metronidazole treatment for amoebiasis at the time of study.  The data showed almost all respondents experienced at least one of the known metronidazole side effects including nausea, vomiting, headache, dry mouth or metallic taste, stomach upset, loss of appetite, dizziness, fatigue, somnolence, constipation, diarrhoea, rash, dysuria, itching and fever. About 36.8% of respondents were judged noncompliant, stopping taking medicine. There was a significant association between the number of side effects experienced per respondent and the status of patient compliance; and also between compliance status and clinical improvement (p<0.001). Notwithstanding patient’s noncompliance and a possible actual metronidazole resistance, some of relapses could be due to incomplete prescribing regimen which does not associate lumen (anti cysts) molecules and metronidazole. Prescribers are invited to seriously address this issue for a better achievement of amoeba eradication.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Cytomegalo Virus Infection among HIV Patients Accessing Healthcare in Federal Medical Centre Keffi, Nigeria

G. R. Pennap, H. O. Ahmed

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27030

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) a herpes virus known for latency after primary infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. It is reported to enhance HIV replication and acceleration of HIV infection to AIDS.

Aim: There is a dearth of published information on the prevalence of CMV infection among HIV/AIDS patients in this area. This cross sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for the viral infection among HIV/AIDS patients in Keffi.

Methods: Blood samples from 208 HIV patients were screened for CMV using specific CMV IgG Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Cortez diagnostic Inc, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Results: The overall mprevalence of CMV IgG antibody was 77.0%. The prevalence of viral infection based on sex was found to be 82.6% among the males and 75.3% in females (P >.05). Seroprevalence was found to be highest among those aged 10–20 years (90.9%) and least among those aged 41-50 years (68.8%) (>.05). There was a statistically significant association between the viral infection and CD4 cells count (P < .05). HIV patients with CD4 of < 100 cells/ml reported the highest prevalence (100%).  There was a decrease in prevalence with an increase in CD4 cell counts.

Conclusion: This study reported 77.0% CMV infection among HIV patients with low CD4 counts as a risk factor. Marital status, occupation, level of education, residence and antiretroviral therapy status had no statistically significant association with CMV infection (P >.05). The threat of CMV reactivation and consequent sequelae among those seropositive to IgG must not be overlooked in the study population. HIV patients should therefore be monitored closely for clinical signs of CMV syndrome.