Open Access Original Research Article

Parasitological Assessment and Public Health Implications of Water Used for Domestic Purposes in Ebonyi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

C. V. Nwidembia, O. O. Odikamnoro, A. U. Nnachi, C. C. Egwuatu, I. N. Aghanya, A. J. Nwinyimagu, O. I. Ezejiofor, I. Mbachu, C. O. Ukaegbu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27040

Aims: Water-borne diseases have been a major cause of morbidity in most developing countries including Nigeria mainly due to poor quality of water used for domestic and industrial purposes. This study was on the parasitological assessment and public health implications of water used for domestic purposes in Ebonyi Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Study Design: This was an observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ebonyi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria between September, 2014 and October, 2014.

Methodology: Samples from different water bodies in each of four communities in Ebonyi Local Government Area were collected and analyzed using standard parasitological methods.

Results: The results revealed the presence of seven (7) different parasites including Giardia lamblia, Schistosoma haematobium, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Diphyllobothrium latum and Taenia spp. The result showed that Giardia lamblia had the highest occurrence of 23.57% while Entamoeba histolytica recorded the least parasite presence with 7.14%. The pond water showed the highest occurrence of parasites presence with 44.29% while the least occurrence was borehole with 0.71%. Only borehole from Nkaleke community showed the presence of a parasite (Entamoeba histolytica).

Conclusion: This study result is of alarming concern as the water bodies sampled are the major water sources available in those areas and by this study are unsafe for domestic use because of their high parasite presence. It is therefore imperative to suggest that the government of Ebonyi state and Nigeria at large should make available infrastructures that would make the water bodies safe for domestic use. Meanwhile, the inhabitants of risk areas and the general populace are advised to boil or treat their drinking water with water guard before use. Also, indiscriminate dumping of refuse or faecal materials should become everyone’s concern and be discouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Human Taeniasis in Odeda Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

H. O. Mogaji, A. A. Adeniran, M. T. Fagbenro, D. B. Olabinke, E. M. Abe, U. F. Ekpo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27084

This study investigated the prevalence of taeniasis among school-aged children in Odeda area of Ogun state, Nigeria. Four hundred and twenty-eight school-aged children were recruited and demographic information were obtained using a simple questionnaire. Faecal samples were also collected, processed using ether concentration method and examined for ova/proglottids of Taenia spp under a light microscope. Data obtained were analysed using IBM SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Of the 428 (100%) children, 226 (52.8%) were females and 202 (47.2%) were males. By age category, 238 (55.6%) of the children were within age category 11-15 years, while 190 (44.4%) belonged to the younger age category (5-10 years). Children who were from a christian family 236 (55.1%) were more in numbers compared to children 192 (44.9%) from an islamic parental background, and majority of the children recruited into the study had parents who can read and write. An overall prevalence of 175 (40.9%) was recorded for taeniasis. Although significant difference donot exist (P>0.05) between Taenia spp infection and demographic variables, the overall prevalence reported portrays a serious public health problem that requires urgent attention. There is thus a need for more full-scale investigation of Taenia spp prevalence in Nigeria, in the phase of planning for appropriate prevention and control strategy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clostridium difficile Infection in Immuno-compromised and Non-immunocompromised Hosts – A Single-center Experience

Sai Wah Cheung, Wai Man Yip, Lawrence Siu Wing Lai, Kin Kong Li

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27298

Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common nosocomial and antibiotic-associated diarrheal disease of different severity. Patients of immunocompromised status were observed to be particularly at risk of complications and severe disease in the Western culture; however, local clinical data in tropical or subtropical region is scarce.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 220 cases at the Tuen Mun Hospital in Hong Kong from May 2010 to April 2012. Independent predictors for 30-day mortality and 60-day recurrence were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: The mortality and recurrence were more prevalent in the immunocompromised group accounting for 36.1% (n=44) and 18.9% (n=23) respectively. We found independent associations between death and the hostel residency (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-5.5), chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.12-6.7), metronidazole treatment <10 days (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.04-5.11), albumin level <30 g/L (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.04-5.14) and proton pump inhibitor exposure (OR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.03-5.54). The hostel residency (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.07-6.1) and duration of disease ≥ 10 days (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 0.997-6.52) were associated with increased odds of recurrence.

Conclusions: CDI is a disease with significant morbidities, complications and mortality whereas the severity is significantly higher in the immunocompromised hosts. Shorter duration of metronidazole as an independent poor prognostic predictor was rarely reported before this paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern and Outcome of Higher Order Caesarean Section in a Tertiary Health Institution in Nigeria

N. C. Orazulike, J. O. Alegbeleye

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27126

Objective: To determine the rate, pattern and outcome of higher order caesarean section (HOCS) in a tertiary health facility.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 182 women who had undergone three or more caesarean sections at the obstetric unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, (UPTH) Nigeria, between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014 was conducted.  Data obtained from the theatre records and case notes of patients were analysed using the statistical package SPSS 20.

Results: Over the 7-year period under review, there were 20,258 deliveries. The overall caesarean section rate was 42.7%. The rate of HOCS per total caesarean section was 2.1%. Of the 182 higher order caesarean section, 114 (62.6%) were emergency HOCS and 68 (37.4%) were elective. The perinatal mortality rate from emergency higher order caesarean section was high (36.4/1000). There was no perinatal death with elective caesarean section. Major degree placenta praevia was the commonest antenatal complication while severe anaemia from primary post partum haemorrhage was the commonest post partum complication, The maternal mortality ratio was 549.1/100,000. There was no maternal death from elective higher order caesarean section. The proportion of higher order caesarean section that was done as an emergency was high with associated feto-maternal morbidity and mortality.

Conclusion: Higher order caesarean section was associated with increased feto-maternal morbidity and mortality especially when unplanned. Women should be encouraged to accept planned repeat caesarean section when they have had two or more.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post-surgical Infection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Admitted Patients with Signs of Infection at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia

Tesfaye Sahile, Samson Esseye, Getenet Beyene, Solomon Ali

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27253

Introduction: Nosocomial infection (hospital acquired infections) poses a significant burden and threat for public health. Treatment of such infections is becoming difficult due to resistance of antibiotics to the bacteria that circulate in the Hospital environment.

The aim of this study was to determine the profile and drug resistance pattern of bacteria isolated from inpatients with clinical signs of infection.

Methodology: A cross sectional study was done on patients admitted to surgical and gynecological wards. All patients were followed until discharge. Patients who had shown signs of infection after 48 hours of admission were interviewed for some socio demographic and associated factors data. Wound swab, urine and blood specimens were collected and processed to isolate and identify bacteria. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was done.

Results: The overall prevalence of culture positive nosocomial infection was 35%. Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, E. coli, and Pseudomonas species were the most frequent isolates. Nearly 100% of Gram positive and 92.6% of Gram negative isolates had shown multi drug resistance against two or more commonly used classes of drugs.

Conclusion: The observed multi drug resistance rate of the isolates is very worrisome and demands immediate attention.