Open Access Original Research Article

Is Oropharyngeal Crowdedness a Risk Factor for High Blood Pressure?

S. A. Ogunkeyede, A. J. Fasunla, O. S. Arulogun, K. O. Akande, O. A. Lasisi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27006

Background: Snoring is a sign of partial upper airway obstruction from oropharyngeal crowdedness during sleep but little is known about its association with essential hypertension in black Africans. 

Aim: To determine prevalence of hypertension among adult snorers and its relationship with selected indices of oropharyngeal crowdedness.

Methods: It is a cross-sectional study of adults in Oyo Rural Community. Questionnaire was administered to obtain data on socio-demography, daytime sleepiness, snoring, duration of overnight sleep. Those with chronic medical conditions and past surgical procedures in the nose or throat were excluded. Oropharyngeal crowdedness was assessed using Mallampati scoring and Brodsky tonsillar grading methods. Participants’ neck circumference and blood pressure were measured. The body mass indices (BMI) were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM- SPSS version 20 and level of significance was at set at p value ˂ 0.05.

Results: There were 408 participants consisting 191(46.8%) snorers and 217 (53.2%) non- snorers. Fifty-one (12.5%) participants have hypertension comprising of 27 (52.9%) snorers and 24 (47.1 %) non-snorers. Mean BMI for male and female were 23.79 kg/m2 ±3.93 and 24.86 kg/m2 ± 4.9 respectively. Mean neck circumference was 34.08±2.7 cm and duration of overnight sleep was 8.2±1.4 hours.  Mallampati score I, II, III and IV were in 94 (23.0%), 148 (36.3%), 121 (29.7%) and 45 (11.0%) participants respectively, and Brodsky tonsillar grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 were observed in 293 (71.8%), 70 (17.2%), 33 (8.1 %) and 12 (2.9 %) participants respectively. There was a significant association between hypertension and neck circumference (p < 0.047), and Mallampati (p < 0.001), but no association with enlarged tonsil (p = 0.203), gender (p = 0.407), BMI (p < 0.68), overnight sleep duration (p = 0.37) and daytime sleepiness (p = 0.908).

Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between snoring and hypertension, but the risk factors for the hypertension were increased age, increased neck circumference and high Mallampati score. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Schistosomiasis Control Programmes and Assessing Factors Contributing to Re-infections in Risk Populations in Uganda: A Grounded Theory and Qualitative Study

Grace Akello, Catherine Abbo, Grace Ndeezi, Elilialilia Okello

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27366

Objective: This study's aim was to document risk population's, including school children’s perspectives regarding risk behaviours and effectiveness of therapeutic modes in management of schistosomiasis.

Methods: A grounded theory and qualitative approach was employed in two risk districts in Uganda. Methods including interviews were conducted with selected school children, 21 fishermen and 17 sand miners. Key informants were 2 District Health Officers, 15 head-teachers, 4 Village Health teams, 8 science teachers, 4 professional health workers, 2 officials from the Ministry of Health /Vector Control Division (MOH/VCD). In addition data was collected through 6 focus group discussions with parents, guardians, school children. Observation was done by three researchers and research assistant in each selected school and surrounding communities and fishing villages. The team also observed risk behaviors for schistosomiasis and practices around lake Victoria in Wakiso district and river Pager in Kitgum district.

Results: One hundred purposively selected school children participated in focus group discussions and in-depth interview. We observed risk practices around the lake and river shores - and then discussed with fishermen (n=21) and sand miners (n=17) their perspectives about schistosomiasis control and treatment. Challenges in the chemotherapeutic approach include irregular supply of Praziquantel (PZQ), drug fatigue, side effects of Praziquantel, poor sanitation and treated people depended on infected waters for their livelihood. Respondents recommended repairing boreholes, immunizing/vaccinating against bilharzia, sensitizing people at risk about the importance of taking Praziquantel regardless of the side-effects.

Conclusions: Schistosomiasis still remains one of the endemic neglected diseases in Uganda. There are both river and lake variants of S. mansoni. The persistence of bilharzia could be attributed to challenges in the chemotherapeutic approach, re-infection and new infections upon exposure to infected waters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recent Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women Receiving Antenatal Care at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

I. L. Oboro, U. C. Ozumba, O. K. Obunge

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/26777

Aim: To determine the seroprevalence of recent Toxoplasma gondii infection using IgG avidity Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) among pregnant women in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Study Design:  A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Rivers State, Nigeria between January and June 2013.

Methodology: Involved two hundred and eighty-eight (288) pregnant women in their first trimester who gave informed consent. Questionnaires were administered to determine socio-demographic factors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on all women’s sera to detect anti-Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and the sero-positive samples were subjected to IgG Avidity ELISA. Data was analyzed using the statistical package Epi info version 6.04 d.

Results: A total of one hundred and eighty-nine (65.6%) pregnant women were seropositive for IgM and IgG among which thirty-three (11.5%) were positive for IgM only, Three (1.6%) among the one hundred and eighty-nine had low IgG avidity percentage while one hundred and eighty-six (98.4%) had high IgG avidity percentage giving a 1.04% seroprevalence of recent infection among these pregnant women.

Conclusion: One in every two pregnant women had been exposed; however, though only a small fraction of these were possibly recent infections, measures to prevent maternal toxoplasmosis in pregnancy as well as diagnose recent infections should be optimised due to the potential for congenital infection with its grave socio-medical implications. The IgG avidity test could therefore, be useful in avoiding unnecessary treatment for Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Babesiosis and Other Heamoparasitic Disease in a Cattle Slaughtering Abattoir in Abeokuta, Nigeria

S. O. Sam-Wobo, J. Uyigue, O. A. Surakat, N. O. Adekunle, H. O. Mogaji

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27280

Babesiosis, an haemoparasitic disease caused by Babesia spp and transmitted by ticks is one of the major public health threat to cattle rearing in most countries, including Nigeria. The disease impose a serious burden on the healthcare infrastructure of both the cattle and their handlers. This study therefore investigated the prevalence of Babesiosis and other haemoparasitic disease in a cattle slaughtering abattoir in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 162 cattle were examined between May and August 2014. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of the cattle at point of slaughter in bottles containing ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and transported to the laboratory for parasitological examination. Using microscopy, prepared Giemsa stained slides were observed under high powered digital Swift™ microscope at 4,500,000 resolution and x100 objective lens. Of the 162 cattle sampled, 83(51.2%) were males and 79(48.8%) were females. An overall prevalence of 27.8% was recorded for haemoparasites such as Babesia spp (8.0%), Trypanosoma spp (1.9%), Theileria spp (9.3%) and Anaplasma spp (18.5%). There was no sex and age predilection for the haemoparasites observed (P>0.05). The findings of this study show that Babesiosis and other haemoparasitic disease are prevalent in the slaughtering abattoir. Proper vector control methods and treatment with drugs in some of the source ranches of the cattle would be necessary to avoid vertical transmission between infected cattle and susceptible ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Malaria Cases in India: A Statistical Analysis

Prakash Kengnal, Sharankumar Holyachi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/26940

In this paper we studied the state-wise patterns of transmissibility of prevalence of malaria epidemic in India, using yearly time series data for the period 2001 to 2013. The data for the study was obtained from different reports of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The time series data was initially analyzed by using the Confidence Interval and Chi square tests. We have also used the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and a post hoc Tukey HSD tests to analyze the geographical differences between means of prevalence rate of malaria.

The result of the study reveals that prevalence rate of malaria shows a decreasing trend for the study period from 2001 to 2013 in India. Further, ANOVA test has shown a significant difference between the prevalence rates of malaria across different states in India, even though a decreasing trend was noted over the study period from 2008 -2013. Also eight homogenous subgroups were formed by using post hoc Tukey HSD test, in which four states viz. Mizoram, D & N Haveli, Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya had the highest prevalence of malaria as compared to other states of India; Delhi, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Jammu & Kashmir, Lakshadweep, Sikkim, Punjab, Puducherry and Uttarakhand had the lowest prevalence rate. The results of this study can be of critical importance as different authors attempt to explore novel approaches to investigate the geographic variation in disease occurrence.