Open Access Short Research Article

First Record of Indigenous Furuncular Myiasis Due to Cordylobia anthropophaga in Unusual Ecologic Niche, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Amal M. Abdo Almatary, Raafat Y. Hassanein, Raafat T. Makhlof, Hanaa Y. Bakir, Amr M. Mohamed

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/29086

Background: Cordylobia anthropophaga, one of the known furuncular myiasis-associated fly, has long been limited to the Afro-tropical region. In Saudi Arabia, Southwest region, part of the Afro-tropical region, has been considered the sole endemic region of C. anthropophaga outside Africa.

Aim: The aim of current study was to investigate suspected cases of myiasis recorded among 7 different children belonging to 3 different households in Makkah province, Midwest of Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: The cases were referred to the Maternity and Children Hospital on 3 different occasions extended from September 2014 to February 2016. All cases were subjected to history taking and clinical examination. Suspected maggots were recovered from associated lesions and were subjected to thorough parasitological and taxonomic examination.

Results: Clinical examination revealed suspected lesions of cutaneous myiasis in different parts of children bodies. History taking revealed no past history of wounds or travelling to Southwest region or tropical sub-Saharan Africa. Based on shape, size, cuticle spine pattern and the posterior spiracles, suspected maggots were identified as 3rd instars of C. anthropophaga.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge the current study is the first record of indigenously acquired cases of C. anthropophaga-induced furuncular myiasis in Midwest region of Saudi Arabia. This interesting finding might denote a remarkable change in the geographic epidemiology of C. anthropophaga with the first known incidence of autochthonous transmission pattern outside its conventional Afro-tropical endemic region. Indeed, further investigations are required to confirm this interesting record.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Malaria Prevalence and Seropositivity of Immunoglobulin G Subtypes Directed to Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1-19

Emmanuel Athanase, Arnold Ndaro, Linda Minja, Jaffu Chilongola

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/28331

Aims: To determine Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) responses to PfMSP1-19 antigens and their associations with malaria across different age groups.

Study Design: A community based cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Bondo Ward, in Handeni district of Tanga Region between January and May 2016.  

Methodology: We included 331 participants; 216 females, 115 males aged between 1 and 82 years, with a median age of 10 years and an inter-quartile range 5 -30 years. Two milliliters of blood was collected from each participant in EDTA coated tubes for detection of malaria and serology. Anti-MSP1-19 IgG subtypes were measured by indirect ELISA based on a protocol developed by Afro Immuno-Assay Consortium. Demographic data were collected using designed record form.

Results: Out of 331 participants, 68 (20.5%) were malaria positive. We report malaria prevalence to be highest in the age category of between 6 and 15 years, compared to individuals above 15 years (OR= 4.5; 95% CI = 2.2–8.9). Most participants were seropositive for total IgG (87.0%), IgG1 (78.5%) and IgG3 (52.9%). Concentration (optical densities) of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 was generally lower in the 1-5 year age category. There was no clear pattern for IgG 2 and IgG4 seropositivity across age categories. After adjusting for age, only IgG1 seropositivity was significantly associated with lower malaria prevalence in all age categories (OR=0.4; 95% CI = 0.2 – 0.8).

Conclusion: IgG1subtype to MSP1-19 is associated with lower malaria prevalence which may imply its possible suitability a target of a prospective malaria vaccine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coital Abstinence and High Risk Sexual Behavior among Husbands of Postpartum Women, in Ikenne, Southwestern Nigeria

Imaralu John Osaigbovoh, Ijadunola Marcellina Yinyinade, Olaleye Atinuke Olukemi, Ani Franklin Inyang, Yusuf Adebola, Nwankpa Chima Godfrey, Fakoya Keji David

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/28622

Aims: To determine the prevalence of high risk sexual behavior and its relationship to the duration of coital sexual abstinence in husbands of postpartum women.

Study Design:  Cross sectional descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ikenne Local Government Area, in Ogun State, South Western Nigeria between, December 2014 and May 2015.

Methodology: Data were obtained with the aid of semi-structured interviewee administered questionnaire from 771 husbands of postpartum women using the multi-stage sampling technique.

Results: The prevalence of High risk sex in the population was 10.6%. The duration of coital sexual abstinence was the most important risk factor (P<.001), while previous extramarital sexual relationship (P<.001, OR=41.70, 95%CI=18.07-96.07) and husband’s knowledge of his own HIV status (P=.03, OR=1.71) were also significant determinants of this occurrence. Consistent condom use during unsafe sex was 6.1%, while STIs occurred in 3.7% of the participants. Significantly longer durations of coital abstinence (8.30 ± 6.24 months) were observed in men who were rural dwellers than in urban dwelling husbands (7.16 ± 6.01 months), P=.01. Violent behavior against the postpartum wife during the abstinence period was reported by 1.2% of the participants.

Conclusion: High risk male sexual behavior was a consequence of prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence and a predisposition to STIs among husbands of postpartum women.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Audit of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Diagnosis of Breast Lesions in Calabar, Nigeria

G. A. Ebughe, O. E. Omoronyia, T. I. Ugbem, N. Usoro, D. E. Ushie

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/29135

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the reliability of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast as rapid cheap and quick diagnostic tool in an underdeveloped setting.

Study Design: A descriptive retrospective study of breast FNAC results matched with the open biopsy results of 93 breast lesions between January 2012 to October 2014.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Calabar teaching hospital, January 2012 to October 2014.

Methodology: Data and archival slides of FNAC and their matched histological slides were analysed. The FNAC diagnosis were compared with the histological diagnosis, which are assumed to be the gold standard. The FNAC concordance with histological diagnosis was tested for quality by comparing our results to the United Kingdom's NHS breast cancer screening programme (NHSBSP) standard of quality.

Results: Ninety three patients (93) had FNAC of the breast followed by open biopsy with histology, comprising one male 92 females giving a male female ratio of 1:0.01. The complete sensitivity 90.7%, absolute sensitivity 72.1% (95% CI: 55.3-84.7%), and full sensitivity, 88.1% (95% CI: 74.4 - 96.0%) of our test, met the performance target of NHSBSP guidelines. However, the false negative rate and the false positive rate of our test results did not meet the NHSBSP performance target.

Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of the breast offers a cheap and quick means of diagnosis, however more needs to be done to improve its diagnostic reliability and safety in Calabar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Emergency Injury Care (EIC) Training for the Community Volunteers in the Rural Community of Bangladesh

Mohammad Jahangir Hossain, Aminur Rahman, Koustuv Dalal, Saidur Rahman Mashreky, Kamran Ul Baset, Animesh Biswas

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27310

Background: Injury is the leading causes of morbidity and mortality including disability worldwide. Emergency Injury Care (EIC) is provided to stabilize casualties with life-threatening injury in an emergency situation by an EIC trained person until refer. Emergency care immediately after occurrence of an injury can reduce the burden of disease and also prevent unwanted deaths. This study looked at effects of EIC training in emergency care by the volunteers at community.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in where community volunteers were received a three days training on emergency injury care by the medical doctors. Each volunteer was allowed to provide EIC in their community if any injury occurs. Data was collected after four months using a structured checklist.

Results: EIC volunteers treated 1,362 casualties during July and October 2008. Among them 52.5% (n=742) were male and 45.5% (n=620) were female. Majority of injury was cut about 68% followed by fall injury 14.3%. A total number of 143 casualties were referred to the government health facilities after providing EICs.

Conclusion: Emergency injury care training for the community volunteers found to be useful in quick assessment, emergency care and timely transfer to the facilities in the rural community. EIC is found to be potential in reducing burden of injury in Bangladesh.