Open Access Original Research Article

Superficial Fungal Skin Infections in Patients Attending Zliten Teaching Hospital (North West of Libya)

Tarek Mohamed Arshah, Abdalla Muftah Al-Bakosh, Mostafa Mohamed Mohamed Ali, Huda Ashour Ramadan, Safa Salem Alshawish, Mabroka Alfatih Algondy

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/28809

Aims: This study was carried out to know the frequency of occurrence of different clinical types of dermatophytosis and Pityriasis versicolor and its distribution among different age groups and sexes and also, in particular groups of patients, who attended dermatology clinic of Zliten Teaching Hospital in Zliten (North west of Libya).

Study Design: A retrospective study was carried out to analyze the data to find out the distribution pattern of different clinical types of Superficial fungal infection (SFI) in relation to age and sex.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for a period of 9 Months, between October 2014 and June 2015. All patients with various skin complaints (3303) were examined for the presence of SFI at outpatient Department of Zliten Teaching Hospital in Zliten, Libya.

Methodology: Wood’s lamp examination was performed on patients with suspected SFI. Also, skin scrapings; nail clippings and infected hair samples were examined for fungal elements in 20% KOH mount under high power of microscope. A definitive diagnosis was based on the cultural characteristics, Lacto phenol cotton blue (LPCB) preparation of the fungal growth and some biochemical tests.

Results: A total of 161(4.9%) of 3303 patients were found to be suffering from SFI. The majority of these patients 37(22.9%) were of less than 7 years of age, followed by age group from 21-27 years 24(14.9%). Male to female ratio was 1.2:1. The most frequent clinical pattern was, Tinea capitis in 41 patients (represented 25.5%), followed by Tinea pedis in 36 patients (22.4%), Tinea corporis in 35 patients (21.7%) and Pityriasis versicolor in 30 patients (18.6%). 

Conclusion: The majority of patients, 113(70.2%) were in the younger age groups (less than 35 years old). Tinea capitis was the most frequent superficial fungal infection under 14 years of age, and Pityriasis versicolor was the most frequent fungal infection in the age group 13-20 years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Human Papilloma Virus among Females in Saudi Arabia

Ayman Khalid Johargy, Adil Jamal, Mohammed Ahmed Garout

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/29610

Background: Human Papilloma virus (HPV) (Cervical growth) has overall central dissemination and is observed second most elevated recurrence in females after breast malignancy in a decade ago among developing countries. The severity of disease is related to society attitude, practices and its knowledge.

Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate and document the influence of Human papillomavirus on adolescent females about prevalent informations, knowledge, attitude and practices.

Place and Duration of Study: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted comprising 2675 participants from different colleges at Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia during January, 2015 to May, 2015.

Methods: A questionnaire was developed to collect information on knowledge and attitude of participants. The enrolled participants were solicited to answer the questions of questionnaire about HPV. HPV information assessment forms were used by examination of the related literature by the investigators. Univariate, bivariate and logistic regression were conducted with significance level at p<.05.

Results: The overall knowledge based attributes were answered wrong by participants showing a lack of knowledge about HPV regarding infection, transmission, prevention and vaccination while approximately half of attitude and practice best questions were scored correct by participants. Regarding knowledge among variables, marital status and colleges were found to be significantly correlated with HPV progression (ᵪ2=13.9; p=0.008), treatment (ᵪ2=8.3, p=0.001) respectively. Marital status showed significant association of good attitude with partner marriage (ᵪ2=14.4; p=0.006) and living (ᵪ2=17.4; p=0.008) together. Logistic regression with the whole sample found that previous knowledge about HPV, HPV infection without medical treatment, mode of transmission associated with participants augmented attitude towards HPV.      

Conclusions: In our study, it was observed that adult female students who constituted our study group had lacking information and knowledge about HPV and infection. Verbal, written and visual communication tools and internet should be used intensively and efficiently for the objective of HPV knowledge and teaching the precautions related with prevention of cervix cancer in terms of society health. Primarily family physicians who offer service for the adult age group should be supported to develop appropriate attitudes and behaviors related with HPV knowledge, attitude and infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Avoidance of Junk Food during Pregnancy, Lactation and Early Years of Child Life: A Step towards the Prevention of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Ejaz Ah. Khan, Sameh Sh. Zaytoun, Raouf M. Afifi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/29718

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder which leads to a myriad of psychiatric and stoical consequences.

Aim: Analyze the relationship between junk food and soft drinks (JFSDs) consumption of pregnant and lactating mothers and their children and the development of ADHD and related disorders among children.

Methods: Primary school children in Kohat, Khyber Pukhtonkhuwa Province, Pakistan were surveyed.

Results: Among 1200 children interviewed, 752 were entered into the analysis. The children's JFSDs intake pattern is as follows: 144 (19 %) mild, in 144 (19 %) moderate, 464 (61.70 %) excessive. The mothers' JFSDs consumption pattern was 181 (14.1%) mild, 209 (27.8%) moderate, 362 (48.1%) excessive. All levels of JFSDs consumption in children were significantly associated with variable degrees of ADHD or the related conditions [χ2(df=3)17.5, p 0.0006]. Also, all levels of JFSDs consumption of the mothers were significantly associated with JFSDs in respective children [χ2(df=2), 13.948, p 0.0009]. Boys were consistently at greater risk for ADHD and related psychological disorders [χ2(df=3), 8.17, p 0.042].

Conclusions: The frequency of ADHD and related psychological disorders among young children increase with increased JFSDs consumption of the children. Children to mothers used to consuming JFSDs during pregnancy or lactation tend to be JFSDs consumers. Cultural and economic factors could impact the likelihood of ADHD variably between both genders in Pakistani child populations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Circulation of Dengue Serotypes in Eastern Thailand during 2012-2015

Salakchit Chutipongvivate, Youngyut Prompunjai

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/30034

Dengue virus infection is an epidemic infectious disease and currently a major public health problem in Thailand. The epidemiology of dengue is characterized by cyclic epidemic activity alternating between years of relatively low and high dengue incidence. The annual change of predominant serotypes was the cause of severity of the disease. This study was to determine the circulating dengue serotype by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during January 2012 to December 2015. A total of 527 seropositive acute samples were analyzed from dengue fever patients in eight provinces in eastern Thailand. Two hundred and forty five samples were found positive, of which 39.2%, 35.5%, 14.3% and 11.0% were affected with DENV-1, DENV-3, DENV-4 and DENV-2 respectively. From 2012 to 2013, the predominant dengue serotype was DENV-1 whereas DENV-3 and DENV-4 were predominant in 2014. There was an apparent increase in the percentage of DENV-4 from 2014 to 2015 and DENV-4 was predominant in 2015. DENV-2 was the least dengue serotype in this region. The study indicated that all four dengue serotypes were circulating in eastern Thailand and the predominant serotypes were dynamic. The identification of dengue viruses infecting the human population provides an important means of early detection of any change in the prevalence of dengue virus serology. Our study has shown the pattern of dengue virus in eight provinces of eastern Thailand from year to year and provided some insight into the dengue epidemic situation in this region. This information should be beneficial to dengue surveillance and prevention and control programs in Thailand.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Changes among Sudanese Patients with Acute Viral Hepatitis B

Badr Eldin Abdalaziz Mohammed, Enaam Abdalrhman Abdelgader

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/28944

Background: Viral hepatitis B is a common cause of liver disease with considerable morbidity and mortality throughout the world. As the liver is responsible for producing many haemopoietic factors and performs many critical functions that affect metabolism throughout the body, haematological alterations are commonly detected in the setting of acute hepatitis. The aim of this study is to determine the haematological complications in patient with acute viral hepatitis B, a thing that can help in treatment and follow up of such patients.

Materials and Methods: The current study was a descriptive cross-sectional one. It included forty nine subjects of diagnosed with acute hepatitis B recruited from the out-patient hepatology clinics of Ibnsina, Dr Fatima Farah private clinic and the out-patient clinics of the military hospital. The cases were defined as acute hepatitis B based on elevated liver function tests, HBsAg and HBeAg positivity determined by Enzyme-linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The hematology analyzer (Sysmex) in addition to thin blood film were used to asses there full blood count.

Results: Anaemia was detected in 57% of patients (80% of female and 47% of male), macrocytosis in 2.04%, microcytosis in 22.45%, leucopenia in 12.24%, leucocytosis in 8.16%, neutrophilia in 10.20%, lymphocytosis in 40.72%, and thrombocytopeniain10.20%).

Conclusion: Haematological alteration were encountered as  extrahepatic complications following acute hepatitis B. Anaemia was seen in more than half of cases with acute hepatitis B along with abnormalities inother blood lineages. It is recommended that haematological tests are to be included as part of the diagnostic and follow up packages for acute hepatitis B infection, in order to avoid fatal haematologic extrahepatic complications.