Open Access Short Research Article

Prevalence of Soil-transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa in Shanty Towns of Libreville, Gabon

P. N. M’bondoukwé, P. D. Mawili Mboumba, F. Manga Mondouo, M. Kombila, M. K. Bouyou Akotet

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/26774

Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are significant public health problems in sub- Saharan Africa. Establishment of effective control strategies such as mass drug administration of anthelminthic are implementing while recent local data in urban areas are lacking.

Aim:  To assess the frequency of IPIs and coparasitism in patients from shanty towns of Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. 

Study Design: Cross-sectional and observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Parasitology Mycology at the Université des Sciences de la Santé, Libreville, from February to April 2014.

Methods: Stool samples collected from 101 individuals, aged between 13 and 74 years old, were analysed by direct microscopic examination, Merthiolate-Iodine-Formaldehyde concentration and coproculture. Age, education level, type of house and existence of latrine were also recorded.

Results: Among analysed stools, 75.2% (n=76/101) were infected with at least one parasite. Protozoa represented 94.3% of the detected parasites with Blastocystis hominis being the predominant species (41.6%; n=42/101). Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (6.9%; n=7/101)) and Giardia intestinalis (2.0%; n=2/101) were the less common protozoa. Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) were found in 7.9% (n=8/101) of stool examined, Trichuris trichiura (5.9%) was the most common helminth detected, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (2.0%), hookworm (1.0%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1.0%). Coparasitism was present in 35.6% (n=36/101) of positive cases. Dual and triple infections accounted for 23.8% and 6.9%, respectively. Having no education and living in a wooden house were associated with IPIs (p<0.01), particularly STH which were more frequent among women and children (p<0.01).

Conclusion: This study reports a high frequency of intestinal parasites infection in shanty towns of Libreville. An unexpected higher prevalence of protozoa compared to STH is also noticed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictors of Sexual Risk Practices among Women of Childbearing Age in Sub-urban Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

Charles I. Tobin-West, Ibitein Okeafor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/29469

Aim: The study was carried out to explore the sexual risk practices of women of childbearing age in sub-urban communities of Rivers State, Nigeria in order to redirect programme interventions.

Study Design: The study utilized a quantitative household-based cross-sectional design to generate information among women of childbearing age.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in five sub-urban communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria between December 2012 and February 2013.

Methodology: Study participants were recruited through the cluster sampling method and data analyzed using the SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate analysis, using unconditional logistic regression was done with dependent and independent variables. A p≤ .05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The majority of the women, 658 (85.6%) were sexually exposed, out of which 245 (37.2%) were involved in sexual risks: early sexual initiation (before 15 years), 110 (16.7%), participation in multiple sexual relationships, 85(12.9%), consumption of alcohol 195 (29.6%) or recreational drugs 39 (5.9%) before sex, and inconsistent use of condoms with casual sexual partners, 55 (22.4%). Logistic regression analysis confirmed that women in the age bracket (15-24 years) were 2.2 times more prone to sexual risk behaviours compared to women in (25-49 years) age bracket, [O.R (95% C.I) = 1.57 (1.11-2.23)], p= .01. Similarly, women currently unmarried: singles, widowed, separated, and divorced were 2.5 times more predisposed to sexual risks than currently married, [O.R (95% C.I) = 1.71 (1.19-2.47)], p= .00. Furthermore, adequate knowledge of HIV was protective against sexual risk behaviors, [A.O.R (95% C.I) = 0.68 (0.47 -0.95)], p= .02. 

Conclusion: The study brings into focus the high prevalence of sexual risk behaviours among women in non-marital relationships and underscores the need to intensify HIV prevention education, condom programming and entrepreneurial skills at the community level for this vulnerable group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Correlates of Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis among Female Students in Bingham University

L. Y. Adogo, E. A. Oyewole, N. C. J. Anyanwu, P. E. Omebije

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/29115

Aim: To determine the prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis among female students in Bingham University.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Biological Sciences, Bingham University, Karu between the months of March to June 2016.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study design was utilized.

Methodology: Low vaginal swabs were collected from 200 female students. G. vaginalis was identified using wet mount, whiff test and culture in chocolate media. Trichomonas vaginalis was identified by making wet mounts of vagina swabs and viewing for viable organism under x10 and x40 objectives of the light microscope.

Results: The results from this study reveals a prevalence rate of 39.0% comprising of 34.5% for  G. vaginalis infection and 4.5% for T. vaginalis. Coinfection rate of (4.5%) was also recorded. Age, symptoms and predisposing factors were significantly associated with G. vaginalis infection (p<0.05). Bivariate analysis using correlation coefficient of 0.2065, 0.5863 and 0.4086 for age, symptoms and predisposing factors shows a moderate positive correlation between these  factors considered and the pathogens under study. Similarly, age was significantly associated with T. vaginalis (p<0.05). However, symptoms and predisposing factors showed no significant relationship (p>0.05) with T. vaginalis. A prevalence rate of (24.5%) and (4.0%) was recorded in the age group 15-20 yrs for G. vaginalis and T. vaginalis infection respectively.

Conclusion: The findings of the entire study reveals that the prevalence of T. vaginalis is quite low however; the prevalence of 34.5% for G. vaginalis is quite alarming. These infections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes therefore; there is a need for increased provision of health information concerning G. vaginalis and T. vaginalis in the school peripheral. Screening and treatment of these infections will go a long way to eradicate these infections among female students in the University.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Chronic Renal Failure Predialysis Patients in Hodiedah, Yemen: Retrospective Study

Mansoor Shueai Al Awfi, Mohammed Amood Al-Kamarany, Mohammed Abdo Abkar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/29780

Background: Hepatitis viruses cause problems at almost all the stages of chronic renal failure (CRF). Most of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients live in developing countries with infections rate varying from country to country.

Objective: This study aimed to find prevalence of HBV in renal failure pre- dialysis patients in renal dialysis center of Hodiedah city, Yemen.

Methods: Demographic data of 278 patients was collected retrospectively for four years and eight months from January 2011 to September 2015. All patients were examined for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using one-step cassette device. Positive samples were confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Demographic data of patients was recorded namely sex, age, education, accommodation and working.

Results: Out of 278 patients, 10 cases (3.60%) were found having HBV infection. Out of 10 positive patients, 7 cases (4.14%) were males and 3 cases (2.75%) were female. Prevalence of HBV was found in the 41- 60 age group (4.39 %) followed by 21-40 age group (3.85%). HBV was detected in 6 cases (4.72%) of 127 urban residence patients and in 4 cases (2.65%) of 151 rural residence patients. Prevalence of HBV was showed similar among educated and non-educated subjects (5 cases for each). There was a main distribution of positive cases in non-working population (10/252=3.97%) as compared to working population (0/26=0.00%).

Conclusion: HBV was detected in few CRF predialytic patients namely 3.60%. Screening of HBV in CRF predialytic patients is an effective strategy taken to ensure containment of hospital acquired infection (HAI) by isolation of patients in certain machines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seizures Scenario in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Odisha, India- A Retrospective Study

Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Bala Chandra Sekhar Pappala, Subrat Kumar, Venkata Naga Vara Prasad Seeram, Madhusmita Sahu, Shubhransu Patro, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/29394

Purpose: Seizures being one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries still the etiological profile is less documented in many regions. This retrospective study aimed to understand regionally identified etiologies of seizure in Odisha, an eastern coastal province of India.

Methods: Data was retrieved from medical records of seizure patients those who were admitted during between August 2012 to December 2014 in a university teaching hospital. Information about demographics, clinical presentations, imaging studies, and diagnoses were extracted manually from each of the case sheets for analysis.

Results: A total of 519 cases of seizures were admitted in various wards during the above period; a majority were male (63.2%). Presentation was more afebrile (62.04%) than febrile (37.96%), where either forms were predominantly found in children over adults (p= <0.05). Among cases with afebrile seizures, the recorded leading causes were hypertensive neuropathy (4.98%), metabolic encephalopathy (3.42%), viral encephalopathy (3.1%), neurocyticercosis (2.8%), and status epilepticus (6.21%). Among cases with febrile seizures, the major etiology was due to an infection (23.35%) where respiratory tract infection was the most common form.

Conclusion: This is the first ever report where etiological profile of febrile and afebrile forms of seizures are identified in Odisha where seizure is a continuing problem. Scenario at one hospital might be the tip of iceberg that tempts to explore the base by either prospective or record based multi-center studies to find more accurate regional burdens of seizure and its causes.