Open Access Original Research Article

Self-medication among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-natal Clinics in Jos-North, Nigeria

B. N. Joseph, I. J. Ezie, B. M. Aya, M. L. P. Dapar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/28248

Background: Self-medication in pregnancy is a great risk irrespective of consumer’s perceived knowledge about the safety of the medicine or previous use history.

Aims: This study examined the extent of self-medication and its determinants among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics.

Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics.

Methods: Pre-tested structured questionnaire was employed to assess the perception, attitude, practices and views of respondents. We selected respondents in an alternate pattern; 350 respondents attending ante-natal clinics at two tertiary hospitals and a primary health care centre in Jos, Nigeria were recruited. We approached respondents with the questionnaires during ante-natal clinics; this was repeated consecutively for six weeks between November 5th, 2014 and December 21st, 2015.

Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 was used for analysis. Results were presented in descriptive and inferential statistics. P-value < .05 was considered statistically significant for association.

Results: Self-medication was prevalent in 62.9% of pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics. Over one-tenth (11.8%) self-medicated with herbal medicine while 6.6% used conventional and herbal medicines concomitantly in the current pregnancy. Majority (87.6%) of respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge about medicine safety issues, yet self-medication practice was high. Having foreknowledge about the condition and its management (31.4%), a history of previous treatment (26.3%) and attitude towards the use of medicine for minor ailments (21.9%) were the major facilitators of self-medication in pregnancy.  

Conclusion: Self-medication in pregnancy is considerably high (62.9%). Women probably perceived minor ailment requires mild medication purportedly considered safe in pregnancy. Self-medication in pregnancy increases as knowledge and awareness about the harmful effects of medicine increases, though this interaction is statistically insignificant.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on Traditional and Modern Prophylactic Methods of Malaria Management in a Resettlement Area in the Southern Lowveld of Zimbabwe

Gladman Chapu, Nyembezi Mgocheki

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/30433

Malaria is a tropical disease that kills a number of people in tropical areas. At least one million people are killed each year and in Zimbabwe the disease is prevalent among children under five years and the immunosuppressed. In rural areas, people use a number of methods to prevent and cure malaria including traditional and modern methods. A survey was carried out in Mukazi resettlement area, Chiredzi district of Masvingo in Zimbabwe.

A stratified random sampling technique was used to select respondents from six villages giving a sample size 86 respondents. The survey revealed that Mukazi fast track villagers mostly preferred to use Insecticide treated nets (ITN) than other methods to prevent themselves from contracting malaria.

Consistent education of inhabitants on proper use and storage of ITNs that the inhabitants currently use mostly to prevent malaria is required. Chloroquine holders may spearhead the awareness campaigns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Bacterial Profile and Pathogenicity in Concomitant Bacteremia with Malaria among Children in Ekiti State

A. O. Oluyege, K. B. Dada, O. Ojo-Bola

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/28313

Bacteremia concomitant with malaria remain one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among children in Africa and the relationship between the two remains unclear. Therefore this study was carried out to determine if malaria predisposes children to bacteremia and the pathogenicity of bacterial isolates in bacteremia concomitant with malaria. A total of 34 bacteria strains belonging to 4 genera were isolated out of which 44.1% were E. coli, 29.4% were Staphylococcus aureus, 17.7% were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 8.8% were Salmonella typhi. Fifty one (27.4%) of the children tested positive for malaria out of which fourteen (7.5%) had concomitant bacteremia and malaria, Thirty seven (19.9%) had malaria only while 20 (10.8%) had bacteremia only. Escherichia coli was the most common organisms found in bacteremia concomitant with malaria while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the least with 8 (23.5%) and 1 (2.9%) cases of occurrence respectively. Bacteremia in concomitant with malaria was common in the age group 0-5 years with a prevalence of 12 (11.8%). LasB and PVL genes were detected in all (100%) of the selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The stx1 and eae genes were also present in 50% of the selected E. coli. In conclusion, the results show that there is a weak association between bacteremia and malaria in the study area and that malaria did not predispose the children to bacteremia. The ability of the bacteria to invade and survive in the blood is due to the presence of some virulence genes and not malaria parasites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Burden of Dengue Virus Infection in Chitwan and Peripheral Districts: An Emerging Disease in Terai Region of Nepal

Sangita Thapa, Lokendra Bahadur Sapkota

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/30612

Background: Dengue has become endemic and subject of concern in Terai regions of Nepal especially Chitwan and its peripheral districts. The evidence of all four serotypes of dengue virus could be a consequence of a sudden resurgence of more severe dengue disease in Nepal.

Study Design: The present study was designed to determine the incidence of Dengue virus infection in clinically suspected patients visiting Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMCTH) in a Central part of Nepal.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted from July 2015 to June 2016 at CMCTH, Bharatpur, the fifth largest city of Nepal. Blood specimens from 357 patients from inpatient and outpatient departments, was collected and processed for anti-dengue immunoglobulin IgM by antibody isotype-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA).

Results: Among 357 samples processed, 45 (12.60%) were positive for anti-dengue IgM antibodies. The highest number of dengue positive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years with greater predilection in males. The gender bias, was statistically significant (p value=0.0004). The dengue positivity was highest in the month of November (51.11%) and majority of dengue infection was recorded in the winter season (86.67%). Dengue was highly prevalent in urban society compared to rural society and the difference is statistically significant (p value<0.0001).

Conclusion: Incidence of dengue infection is increasing and current outbreak in Chitwan and peripheral districts is a serious matter of concern. The higher prevalence of dengue in this study underscore the need for comprehensive surveillance of the disease in order to identify the high risk areas and current disease burden for immediate implementation of preventive measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ectopic Pregnancy: Recent Experience in a Tertiary Hospital, South-Southern Nigeria

H. A. A. Ugboma, O. A. V. Oputa, N. C. Orazulike, D. O. Allagoa

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/29181

Objective: To assess the incidence, clinical presentation, management and associated morbidity of ectopic pregnancy in a tertiary health institution in South-southern Nigeria over a 2-year period.

Methods: Hospital-based cohort study were all women with ectopic pregnancy identified at laparotomy were analyzed.

Results: Ectopic pregnancy occurred most frequently in women between the ages of 20 and 34 years. It had its highest incidence among nulliparous women. The incidence declined with increasing parity. 82% of cases were ruptured at presentation and all patients had surgical treatment.

Conclusions: Ectopic pregnancy remains a significant contributor to maternal morbidity especially in the first trimester of pregnancy in this setting. There is the urgent need of public health measures like safe sex, female education and female empowerment aimed at reducing the identified risk factors in our environment.