Open Access Case Study

Subtotal Thyroidectomy under Local Anesthesia in a Pregnant Woman Presenting with Giant Goiter: A Case Study

B. Eke, B. A. Ojo, A. O. Ojabo, M. T. Maanongun, V. I. Ugwu, E. O. Umobong, M. Ogiator, P. Abayol, M. Efu, Chukwukadibia N. Ahachi, Priscilla Denen Akaa

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/25450

Thyroid surgery is performed by most surgeons in practice using general anesthesia. In resource poor developing nations with paucity of anesthetists, anesthetic drugs and equipment, it can be done under local anesthesia with acceptable results. We report a case of a 17 week pregnant woman who presented with giant goiter and respiratory obstructive symptoms. Post-op, she carried the pregnancy to term with safe delivery. She was followed up for two years with no morbidity recorded. Thyroidectomy using local anesthesia is safe and cost effective and applicable to a wide range of patients, including those who pose a general anesthetic risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxoplasmosis and Associated Risk Factors in Antenatal Clinic follow up Pregnant Women in Selected Health Institutes of Jigjiga, East Ethiopia

Adugna Negussie, Ermiyas Beyene, S. Palani

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31177

Toxoplasma gondii infections in pregnancy lead devastating effects including blindness, neurological impairment and mental retardation in congenitally infected children. Despite such adverse effects caused by this parasite, data on morbidities and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jigjiga, Ethiopia is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondi infections and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in public health institutes of Jigjiga, East Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September to January, 2013. Three hundred and one pregnant  women  attending antenatal clinic were  screened for Toxoplasma gondi  antibodies using commercially available Huma Tex TOXO test kits. Out of the 301 women tested, 105 (34.9%) has Toxoplasma antibody. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma was seen to be significantly associated with eye disease (p < 0.05). However results of this study show low seroprevalence rate there is the need to include the testing of Toxoplasma as a part of the antenatal investigation done on pregnant women and to educate women about the risk factors that lead to Toxoplasma gondi infection in order to reduce congenital malformations and death as a result of these infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Pattern of Thyroid Diseases in Abuja, Nigeria Capital City: A Review of One Hundred and One Consecutive Cases

B. Eke, B. A. Ojo, B. M. Duduyemi, I. V. Ugwu, E. O. Umobong, G. Shorun, I. Okolie

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/24487

This study is a histopathological review of 101 consecutive thyroidectomy specimen processed and histologically diagnosed in Anatomic Pathology Department of Asokoro District Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria new capital city between 2010 and 2014. Nodular colloid goiter is the preponderance thyroid lesion seen constituting 75%, of all cases with a male to female ratio of 0.17:1. Neoplasms (11%) represent the second most common pathology with thyroid adenoma representing 8% of cases and thyroid carcinoma 3%, of cases. Seventy five percent of the adenoma was seen in females and all the carcinoma occurred in females. Other lesions are thyroglossal duct cyst (7%) and thyroiditis (7%).

The study review a higher incidence of papillary carcinoma over follicular carcinoma and this represents a reversal to findings in most Africa population based study. There is also a high incidence of thyroiditis in comparison with other works in Africa. Because of the small size of our sample population, accurate inference on the gender division of various disorders may not be conclusive. There is a need for further study on the pathology of thyroid lesions in Abuja in other to elucidate the reasons for the disparity noted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Profile and Factors Associated with a Poor Outcome in Childhood Tuberculous Meningitis in a Developing Country: A 10 Year Case Review

Loukia Aketi, Joseph Shiku Diayisu, Pierre Tshibassu, Adolphine Nkwadiolandu, Zacharie Kashongwe, Toni Lubala Kasole, Dad Mande, Patrick Kayembe Kalambay

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31438

Aims: The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiologic, clinic profile and outcomes of childhood Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) in the 3 university hospitals of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Study Design: This study is designed as a retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the University Hospitals of the DRC (University Hospital of Kinshasa, Kisangani and Lubumbashi) from January 2005 to December 2014.

Methodology: This study is a 10 year review that was conducted from 2005 to 2014 using the medical records of children less than 15 years old who were hospitalized for TBM as defined by clinical and paraclinical parameters. Of the 5997 patients admitted for TBM, 42 (0.7%) were children less than 15 years old, but only 31 cases met the selection criteria.

Results: The mean age was 4.3 years (range of 3 months to 14 years). The main symptoms were fever (80.6%), weight loss (41.9%) and alterations in consciousness (70.9%). The main physical symptoms were neck stiffness and signs of meningeal irritation (61.2%) and cranial nerve palsy (32.2%). One (3.2%) patient was classified as stage I, 12 (38.7%) as stage II, and 18 (58.5%) as stage III. Three cases were coinfected with HIV (38.7%). There were a total of 95.6% cases of pleocytosis, 58.1% of lymphocytic pleocytosis, 35.4% of neutrophilic pleocytosis, 91.6% with an increase in proteins, 91.6% with low glucose and 16.6% with low chloride. Eleven (35.5%) patients were cured, 11 (35.5%) had sequelae, and 9 (29.0%) died. The bivariate analysis showed an association between the time before consultation (P=.004), the waiting period before diagnosis after hospitalization (P=.003), TB contact (P=.046), nutritional status (P=.001), weight loss (P=.012) and a poor outcome. From the logistic regression, only the nutritional status (P=.001) was associated with a poor outcome.

Conclusion: More than half of the patients were in contact with health care services at an advanced stage. There was a significant association between the time before consultation, the waiting period before diagnosis, TB contact, nutritional status and a poor outcome. Generally, TBM poses diagnostic and prognostic challenges in DRC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Self-perception Lifestyle with Overweight / Obesity among People with a Family History of Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross Sectional Study

Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza, Karla Cristina Paz-Salinas, Silvia del Carmen Delgado-Sandoval, Georgina Olvera-Villanueva, Ma. Lourdes Jordan-Jinez, Vicente Beltran-Campos

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31511

Aim: To analyze the association between self-perception of lifestyle and overweight / obesity among people with diabetic parents.

Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: It is a community study in Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico between January 2014 and December 2014.

Methodology: Bioethics Committee approved the study. It was included 100 offspring from people with Type 2 diabetes. It was applied the questionnaire of self-perception of lifestyle and anthropometry was used know the body mass index and overweight/obesity status. Chi Squared-test, Odds Ratio, confidence intervals to 95%, between self-perception and lifestyle dimensions and overweight / obesity status, were calculated.

Results: Of the 100 offspring of people with Type 2 diabetes, 61 (61%) were self-perceived with healthy lifestyle and overweight / obesity; X2 = 3.16, p = .075, OR = 5.51, 95% CI .69 to 44.24; association between self-perception of fitness unhealthy (X2 = 5.33, df = 1, p = .02, OR = 2.94), stress and social support (X2 = 4.37, df = 1, p = .037, OR = 3.74) and sexuality (X2 = 4.52, df = 1,  df = 1,  p = .03, OR = 3.38) with overweight / obesity.

Conclusions: Among the offspring of people with Type 2 diabetes, it was found an association and effect between three-dimensions of self-perception of lifestyle: fitness, stress and social support, sexuality with overweight / obesity was found.