Open Access Method Article

Implementing Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS) for Public Health in West Africa- Lessons Learnt and Future Direction

Olawunmi Olubunmi Adeoye, Daniel Tom-Aba, Celestine Attah Ameh, Olubunmi Eyitayo Ojo, Elsie Anengiyefa Ilori, Saheed Olutoyin Gidado, Endie Ndadilnasiya Waziri, Patrick Mboya Nguku, Sabine Mall, Kerstin Denecke, Maike Lamshoeft, Norbert George Schwarz, Gerard Krause, Gabriele Poggensee

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31584

Background: Mobile devices have the potential to strengthen surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Electronic surveillance (eSurveillance) is the use of electronic systems to facilitate public health surveillance. Mobile health (mHealth) is the use of mobile phone technology for health-related purposes. SORMAS is a new system developed as a tool for surveillance and public health response management of infectious diseases.

Aims: To pilot a new mobile phone based Surveillance and Outbreak Management and Analysis System (SORMAS) application in Nigeria and document the experience and challenges.

Place and Duration of Study: Health facilities and Local Government areas in Kano and Oyo States, Nigeria, West Africa and Abuja, Nigeria, West Africa between December 2014 and July 2015.

Methodology: The development of the tool included contributions from six organisations in three different countries. Experience with the management of the prior Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in the country served as blueprint for tool design. We used the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Reporting system as reference for the data model. SORMAS was piloted in over 60 health facilities of 16 Local Government Areas (LGA) in Oyo and Kano States. We analysed meeting reports training evaluations and supervisory visits to describe the process and identify challenges. 

Results: It took 8 months from initiation to piloting of the newly developed tool. The process was characterized by early involvement of stakeholders in the design process, adherence to existing workflows and data standards and systematic evaluation of training and piloting. Challenges included user friendly login procedures and geographic separation of team members.

Conclusion: Early involving authorities and other stakeholders is crucial for implementation of novel eHealth tools. The need for prior training and continuous supervisory availability on site should not be underestimated even for user friendly tools and it is preferable to have IT-programmers, content experts and future users work in geographic proximity to enhance exchange on needs and technical capabilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria Treatment Patterns among Patent Medicine Vendors in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

E. O. Asuquo, E. C. Onyekwere, K. K. Edonkumoh, P. Nzeribe, O. Idisi, O. Erikefe, O. O. Ebong

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31930

Aims: Patent medicine vendors are patronized by people from all segments of the community because they are perceived to be more accessible, caring, and less expensive than public health facilities. However, cases of poor drug prescription and treatment patterns have been reported and have resulted in injudicious use of drugs and drug resistance. This study investigated the treatment patterns of malaria by Patent Medicine Vendors in Obio/Akpor LGA, Rivers State.

Study Design:  A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State in November 2011.

Methodology: Systematic random sampling method was adopted to select 100 patent medicine vendors from 10 communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area. Data was collected using a pretested interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire and was entered into an excel sheet and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0.

Results: Respondents were aged 20 to 70 years. There were more females 57 (58.8%) than males 40 (41.2%). The study showed that most of the patent medicine vendors (70.1%) in treating malaria, did not confirm their diagnosis with laboratory tests. More than half of the respondents (67%) knew the World Health Organization’s recommended antimalarial drugs and dosages. Fifty one percent of the respondents used the recommended drugs as their first line drug of treatment for malaria.

Conclusion: Patent medicine vendors in Obio/Akpor LGA have considerable knowledge of the recommended treatment for malaria. However, there is still the need for them to be trained on correct prescription patterns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of a Cognitive-behavioral Program on Adherence to Antihypertensive Therapeutic Regimen in Older Adults: A Quasi-experimental Study

Celia Monserrat Bernal-Razon, Ma. Lourdes Jordan-Jinez, Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31479

Aims: To determine the effect of a cognitive-behavioral program on adherence to the antihypertensive therapeutic regimen of the elderly.

Study Design: Quasi-experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: It was performed in the House of the Grandfather, nursing homes Juan de Celayeta and Beautiful Sunset San Juan Bosco rest house, all of Tepic, Nayarit, between April 2015 and May 2016.

Methodology: We included 49 elderly people with arterial hypertension, in two groups: interventional and comparison, with written informed consent. Data collection was done with the questionnaire of therapeutic adherence for hypertension; blood pressure was measured with a portable aneroid sphygmomanometer. The cognitive behavioral intervention was performed on the intervention group based on psychoeducation and cognitive restructuring to improve adherence to the therapeutic regimen.

Results: Both groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics. For therapeutic adherence, there were statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the comparison group (P <.05). Membership to the intervention group showed a strong effect on non-hypertension, post intervention (P <.05).

Conclusion: The cognitive-behavioral program had a positive effect on adherence to the antihypertensive therapeutic regimen, showing significant changes in the intervention group, and a reduction in the proportion of patients with hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity, Safety and Acceptability of Formulated Ginger-fortified Hand Sanitizer Gel

O. M. David, F. J. Olatunji, M. O. Alese, T. O. Babalola, O. O. Alese

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/28352

Hand hygiene remains the most effective means of breaking transmission of most infectious diseases in and out of hospital settings. Hand hygiene could be achieved by different means. However, in recent time, the use of hand sanitizer which could either be a supplement or an alternative to hand washing has been promoted. The effectiveness of a formulated herbal hand sanitizer was investigated in this study. The herbal (ginger) hand sanitizer was formulated and screened on both bacterial and fungal isolates using different microbiological methods in this study. The skin and eye irritation potential of the sanitizer were conducted on experimental animals. Structured questionnaire was used to test the effects of the product on the skin of consenting human volunteers. The hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger showed a concentration-dependent activity on the test organisms. Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was the most susceptible isolates followed by Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Serratia marcescens ATCC 9986 was more resistant to the extract at lower concentrations (0.78 and 1.56 mg/ml). Aspergillus fumigatus was the most susceptible out of the three fungi tested followed by Penicillum chrysogenum. Herbal hand sanitizer (with weighted effectiveness of 3.82) performed better than commercial hand sanitizer (with weighed effectiveness of 3.78). In the glass beads test, both herbal and commercial sanitizers inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Serratia marcescens ATCC 9986. Though caused eye irritation, the herbal sanitizer produced neither skin irritation nor dryness. The formulated hand sanitizer is economical and found to be safe throughout long period of continued use.

Open Access Review Article

Health-related Quality of Life Predictors in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: A Systematic Review

Adedokun O. Ojelabi, Yitka Graham, Jonathan Ling

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31954

Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to examine the predictors of HRQL(health-related quality of life) in children and adolescents (aged 18 years and under) with SCD(Sickle Cell Disease).

Methodology: A systematic review was conducted to identify published articles meeting defined inclusion criteria to identify determinants of HRQL in children and adolescents with SCD.

Results: Children and adolescents with SCD have poor HRQL compared with healthy peers, normative populations or siblings. A number of socio-demographic variables, socioeconomic markers and psychosocial factors along with clinical measures predict HRQL in the study population. These include child demographics, family income, parental support, depression, comorbidities and frequency of hospitalisation.

Conclusion: In managing SCD in children and adolescents, healthcare providers should pay attention to psychosocial variables along with clinical measures. This holistic approach to disease management may help to mitigate the adverse impact of the disease on people with SCD.