Open Access Letter to the Editor

Dengue Scenario in Chennai, Tamil Nadu- An Analysis (2011-2013)

Ramalingam Senthilraja, Padmanaban Padmapriya, Vijayan Senthilkumar, Palani Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy Kaveri, Karupannan Sathiyamurthy

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/25744

The “Type of Article” of this paper is “Letter to the Editor”. This paper discuses about: “Dengue Scenario in Chennai, Tamil Nadu- An Analysis (2011-2013)”. No formal abstract is available. Readers are requested to read the full article.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Contamination of the Hospital Environment - The Experience of an Infection Control Team in a Tertiary Hospital in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Oluwatoyosi Oladapo, Kemebradikumo Pondei, Wisdom Olomo, Abisoye Oyeyemi, Tamaramiebi Nanakede, Dimie Ogoina

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31655

Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are a major public health problem, contributing to morbidity and mortality of susceptible patients. In order to ascertain potential sources of HAI in a tertiary hospital, certain critical surface areas of the hospital, water sources and theatre instruments were sampled. Out of the 44 items sampled, 13 (29.5%) yielded 15 bacterial isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently isolated microorganism (60% of isolates), while Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus accounted for the remaining 40%. Bacterial load was heaviest in stored bucket water and the tip of the suction tube from the theatre. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a baby cot from the Special care Baby Unit was resistant to all antibiotics tested. Most bacterial isolates were resistant to cefuroxime and cefexime. S. aureus was particularly resistant to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone.

The results confirm the importance of water and environmental surfaces as potential sources of transmission of HAI. We recommend the overhauling of the Water supply system and institution of robust infection prevention and control practices. Hospitals ought to strictly adhere to infection control guidelines that include cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of hospital surfaces and equipment as appropriate, regular practice of hand hygiene and routine preventive maintenance of water systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with Yaws Infections in the West Akim Municipality, Ghana

Emmanuel Dzotsi, Nsiiri Agana, Sally-Ann Ohene, Michael Adjabeng, Abdul Aziz, John Kofi Odoom

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/32425

Objectives: Yaws, caused by the spiral-shaped bacterium (spirochete) Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue is a contagious, non-venereal infection in humans that presents mainly in children below 15 years old and primarily affects the skin, bones and cartilage. Despite the implementation of the strategy of mass drug treatment in West Akim Municipality in the Eastern Region of Ghana in the past, there is indication of resurgence of the disease. This study seeks to determine factors associated with resurgence of infection with yaws amongst residents.

Study Design: It is an un-matched community-based case-control study.

Methods: A standardized questionnaire was administered to the cases and controls as they were detected in the communities by trained data collection officers. Trained Community Based Volunteers moved from house to house for active case search and examined skin lesions. Data on education, occupation, religion and risk factors for yaws were analyzed using Epi-Info version 7 and Excel statistical software packages.

Results: The mean age of the cases and controls was 9.28 and 9.1 years respectively. The cases were seventy (70) times more likely to have played with yaws cases as compared to the controls [Odds Ratio= 70; 95% CI (8.97-546.56), p-value= 0.000], likewise cases were more likely to have slept in same room with yaws cases. Sharing clothing with yaws case was significantly associated with being a yaws case [OR= 25; 95% CI, (3.12-204.69); p-value 0.0001]. Adjusting for age, overcrowding was significantly associated with yaws infection [Adjusted OR (MH); 2.8; 95% CI; 1.3-5.95.0; p-Value; 0.014].

Conclusions: The significant association of having contact with yaws infected person  and overcrowded homes with yaws requires to take measures to prevent contact with yaws infected persons in addition to early detection and treatment of yaws cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Presentation, and Treatment Outcomes of Intra-abdominal Abscesses, in a Suburban Hospital in Bayelsa State Nigeria

Tabowei Benjamin, Amaefula Ejike Temple

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/30652

Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, etiology, clinical features, and treatment outcome of intra-abdominal abscess in sub-urban Bayelsa Nigeria and suggest possible preventive measures.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri Bayelsa State Nigeria from February 2011 to March 2016.

Methodology: Thirty (30) patients with intra-abdominal abscesses seen at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri Bayelsa State Nigeria within the periods of study, having fulfilled inclusion criteria had their data extracted from case notes and retrospectively analyzed for pattern of presentation, etiology, clinical features, and treatment outcome. Simple descriptive statistics and tables were used to present results. 

Results: There were 18 males and 12 females with mean age of 35, S2 = 514.28, SD= 1.01; and the highest incidence was in the age group of 21-40 years, affecting all occupational groups. Forty percent (40%) presented to the hospital after two weeks of onset of illness, and most common cause of intra-abdominal abscess was from ruptured appendix 13 [43.33%].

Conclusion: Outcome in treatment of intra-abdominal abscess continue to be influenced by risk factors which we found from our studies to be late presentation to hospital, delay in diagnosis, and abdominal massage. Urgent public health campaign will help reduce the incidence of visceral perforation and spread of infected materials in peritoneal cavity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Descriptive Characterization of Epidemic Meningococcal Serogroup W in the Upper West Region of Ghana

Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie, Gideon Kwarteng Acheampong, Winifred Ofosu, Kwame Acheampong, Isaac Baffoe-Nyarko, Ansoumane Berete

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/32324

Aims: In recent time, Nm W outbreaks have been on the increase in the African meningitis ‘belt’. One of such outbreaks occurred in the Upper West Region of Ghana from December, 2015 to April 2016. The epidemiological features of the outbreak are descriptively characterized and an overview of the reactive vaccination provided.

Study Design: Descriptive.

Place and Duration of Study: Upper West Region of Ghana from December, 2015 to April 2016.

Methods: Data on all cases of meningitis during the outbreak was obtained from the Disease Surveillance Department of the Ghana Health Service. Variables such as age, sex, district of residence, reporting district, health facility reported, date seen at health facility, date of onset, laboratory results, outcome and vaccination coverage were used for all analysis.

Results: Between epidemiologic weeks 1 and 7 of the outbreak, the predominant causative organism was Neisseria meningitidis (Serogroup Nm W) forming 70% of all bacterial meningitis cases recorded. Nadowli-Kaleo, Jirapa and Nandom recorded the highest number of confirmed cases with the cases crossing epidemic thresholds in weeks 5,4 and 5 respectively. Majority of confirmed Nm W cases (46 cases) were found in ages 15 years and above. A reactive vaccination campaign was undertaken following the outbreak and a target coverage of 98.4% achieved.

Conclusion: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup NmW is increasingly becoming a major cause of bacterial meningitis and there is the need to institute effective control measures to mitigate its effects. Urbanized areas like Jirapa, Nadowli-Kaleo, Lawra and Nandom districts should have alert and epidemic thresholds reviewed frequently to facilitate early detection and improve early and effective response including vaccination.