Open Access Case Study

Bee-sting with Extensive Cerebral Infarct: A Case Report

I. A. Adedeji, H. Ahmed, A. S. Adamu, M. F. Bashir

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/32386

Background: A bee-sting is a fairly common experience in our environment and when it occurs, it usually manifests with local allergic reaction and less commonly presents with systemic signs and symptoms. The central nervous system (CNS) is rarely involved in cases of bee sting.

Case Presentation: We report a case of a nine-year-old male who had bee sting and subsequently presented with impaired consciousness, hemiparesis and seizure. His brain CT showed evidence of extensive cerebral infarcts and oedema. He improved following the use of corticosteroids.

Conclusion: CNS affectation in bee sting is diverse and its occurrence may result in long-term neurological sequelae. Improved public awareness on the dangers of bee sting is very crucial.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urinary Schistosomiasis and Its Related Anaemia among Children in a High Risk Community in Ghana

Isaac Anim-Baidoo, Lydia Gadri, Richard Harry Asmah, Enid Owusu, Uri Selorm Markakpo, Eric S. Donkor, Patrick Ayeh-Kumi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/29532

Background: Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease of great public health importance and remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children globally. The disease, which is often characterized by painful urination and haematuria is common among children living in communities near dams. In this study, urinary schistosomiasis and its related anaemia among children in a community near the Weija dam in Accra, Ghana was investigated.

Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 100 children of age range 4-12 years living in the Weija community of Ghana. Urine and blood samples were collected from the study participants for laboratory analyses. Urine samples were tested for haematuria, proteinuria and the S. haematobium ova. Full blood counts of anticoagulated blood samples were estimated by Sysmex 2000i-XE haematology analyzer to determine anaemia in children. Demographic and clinical data of the study participants were obtained by use of a structured questionnaire.

Results: The 100 children who participated in the study had a mean age of 12.12± 1.8 years, and comprised of 62 males and 38 females. More than half of the study participants (76%) tested positive for urinary schistosomiasis. Infection was significantly associated with sex (p=0.007) and age (p<0.001). Out of those infected, 68.4% were anaemic and a significant relationship was observed between infection and anaemia (p= 0.046). Most of the children (95%) had ever visited water contact sites for swimming, washing or fetching water for domestic use.

Conclusion: Our study shows a high prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection and its association with anaemia among the studied subjects in the Weija community. Mass drug administration for treatment, aggressive health education, regular screening and other relevant interventions are urgently needed in this community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Is Cleft Lip a Spiritual Thing? – A Pilot Study of Beliefs and Attitudes amongst Some Future Primary Health Care Workers in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Abimbola Gloria Akinloye, Emmanuel Oluwatobiloba Olukoya, Amidu Omotayo Sulaiman, Oluwatoyin Roseline Adeniyi, Francis Omotayo Fagbule

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/29487

Background: The birth of a baby with cleft lip is regarded as evil in many Nigerian communities. Cleft lip babies tend to suffer from social neglect or infanticide due to superstitious beliefs associated with their births. This study aimed to explore the awareness, beliefs, and attitudes of students in primary health care-related diploma programmes in Ibadan, Nigeria, towards babies born with cleft lip.

Methodology: A pilot study was conducted among 88 students of primary health care-related diploma programmes in three conveniently selected schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. Information on their bio-data, awareness, beliefs and attitudes towards of cleft lip babies were obtained through the use of a self-administered questionnaire. All administered questionnaires were returned filled, 5 were discarded due to incomplete data. Data analysis was done using the SPSS version 16 Software.

Results: The mean age (±SD) of the 83 respondents was 35.32 (±10.22) years, 72.3% were females, 69.9% were Yorubas, and 60.2% were married. Forty-six respondents (55.4%) had never seen a baby with cleft lip before, while the rest had seen at least one baby with such deformity. The majority (≥61.5%) did not believe that cleft lip could be caused by witchcraft, curses, God, evil spirits, and bad luck. Less than 60% of the respondents believed that excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, genetic factors, cigarette smoking, irradiation, and drugs are potential risk factors for cleft lip formation. The majority (≥78.3%) showed positive attitude towards delivering health care services to cleft lip babies.

Conclusion: The majority of the students of primary health care-related diploma programmes in this study were not superstitious about cleft lip. However, their knowledge of its risk factors is inadequate. There exists the need to educate them on the risk factors/aetiologies of cleft lip.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Prevalence of Malaria, Fever, Anaemia and Factors Associated with Malaria Prevalence among Children Less than Five in an Area with Prolonged Malaria Transmission in Ghana

Margaret Kweku, Michael Ofori, Eric Kwaku Appiah, Bismarck Dinko, Wisdom Takramah, Eric Agboli, Mohammed Takase, Felix Doe, Elvis Tarkang

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31371

Background: Globally, malaria and anaemia are major causes of morbidity and mortality among children. As part of the millennium declaration, countries enjoined themselves to have halted and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other diseases by 2015. In 2006, Ghana started implementing malaria control strategies that involved free distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs), early detection and prompt appropriate treatment with Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). This study was set out to assess the prevalence of malaria, anaemia, ownership and use of LLINs at the end of the low transmission (pre-rainy season) and high transmission (post-rainy season) seasons in 2015. It also reported on factors associated with malaria prevalence in the Hohoe municipality of Ghana.

Methods: Two community-based cross-sectional surveys were undertaken among children less than five years in 30 communities. Information was collected on the background of the children, ownership and use of LLINs, history of fever and antimalarial drug used at home. Anthropometric indices and axillary temperature were measured, as well as blood film for malaria parasites and haemoglobin levels. Data analysis was done using z test to compare differences in proportions, t-test to compare differences in means and multiple linear regression to determine association between dependent and independent variables.

Results: A total of 1915 and 1697 children were screened. The prevalence of malaria by RDT in the pre- and post-rainy seasons were 217 (11.3%) and 676 (39.8%) respectively, and using microscopy were 148 (7.7%) and 451(26.6%) respectively. Malaria parasitaemia prevalence was significantly lower in the pre- compared to post-rainy season (7.7% vs. 26.6%; p<0.001). Ownership of LLIN was high, however, similar in the pre- and post-rainy seasons (83.2% vs. 84.1%; p= 0.466). Usage of LLIN was significantly lower in the pre- than the post-rainy season (68.3% vs. 72.8%; p=0.003). Anaemia (Hb<8.0 g/dl) was significantly higher in the pre- compared to the post-rainy season (11.1% vs. 8.9% p=0.028). Gametocyte prevalence was similar in pre- and post-rainy seasons (0.4% vs. 0.3%, p=0.677) respectively. Malaria prevalence was found to be associated with fever (temperature≥37.5°C) (p=0.029), and ACTs use for suspected malaria during the pre-rainy season (p=0.027).

Conclusion: Gametocyte prevalence is an indication that malaria is transmitted throughout the year though highly seasonal. Treatment of suspected malaria with ACTs can reduce malaria prevalence. Overall, LLIN ownership and use was high but did not meet the millennium targets of 100% ownership and 85% usage. Our findings suggest that in the low transmission season, introduction of systematic detection and treatment of asymptomatic carriers and in the high transmission season, Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) together with the existing interventions could impact on malaria burden to such a level that elimination can be considered. Further studies are required to determine why lower usage of LLINs and higher prevalence of anaemia in the low transmission season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endometrial Lesions in Makurdi, Nigeria: A Histological Review of Curetting Specimens

Raymond Akpobome Vhriterhire, Joseph Aondowase Ngbea, Babarinde Akinedu Ojo, Boniface Ugbaje, Michael Tyodoo Maanongun

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/32638

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the common complaints warranting a search for endometrial abnormalities. Curettage specimens are valuable for histological diagnosis of a spectrum of endometrial lesions from placental tissue and infections to the precursor lesions of endometrial carcinoma.

Objective: To determine the frequency and age distribution of the lesions present on histopathological evaluation of endometrial curettage specimens in Makurdi, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of endometrial curettage tissue samples submitted in the pathology laboratory of Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria from October 2012 to December 2016. The tissues were received in 10% formalin, processed and the tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin routinely.

Results: Endometrial curetting specimens constituted 4.7% (132/2809) of the total number of specimens accessioned during the period of review. One hundred and five (82%) of the specimens were from premenopausal women. Retained products of conception was the most common entity in premenopausal women, accounted for 47.7% (61/128) and had a mean age of 29.3 ± 6.7 years. Other lesions included decidual reaction (10.2%, 13/128), Arias Stella reaction (8.6%, 11/128) and chronic endometritis (3.9%, 5/128). Endometrial hyperplasia was the most common lesion in both the perimenopausal (7%, 9/128) and postmenopausal (4.7%, 6/128) women. Endometrial carcinoma accounted for 3.1% (4/128).

Conclusion: This analysis of endometrial curetting specimens showed that retained products of conception were most common in premenopausal women while endometrial hyperplasia, occurred mainly in perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups.