Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Kaduna Metropolis and Environs

Halima Sadia Bello, Yahaya Abdullahi Umar, M. S. Abdulsalami, Victor Oluwasanmi Amusan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33528

Toxoplasmosis due to infection by Toxoplasma gondii is estimated to affect one third of the global population. In pregnancy, T. gondii infection represents the risk to induce miscarriage and congenital transmission. This study was therefore conducted to determine the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Kaduna south, Nigeria. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used and structured questionnaire to obtain information on risk factors associated with infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Gwamna Awam General Hospital Kakuri and Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial Hospital Tudun Wada in Kaduna State. A total of One hundred and ninety two (192) blood samples (96 from each of the selected hospital) were collected from the pregnant women and screened using specific anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies kit (IBL- International GMBH a Tecan Group Company). Result obtained from the 192 women serum analysed showed an overall seroprevalence of 31.3% using T. gondii specific IgM antibodies. Seropositivity was found to be statistically associated with age (P < 0.05) while Relative Risk  (RR) analysis showed that women aged between 31-35 yrs. were found to have higher risk of contracting toxoplasmosis than all other age groups (RR 4.620). Chi-Square test showed that pregnancy stages, previous history of miscarriage and educational level of pregnant women were found to significantly influence prevalence of T. gondii infection (P < 0.05). Women with previous history of miscarriage was found to be more likely to be infected with toxoplasmosis than women with no history of miscarriage (RR= 1.278). Risk factor such as keeping cats was found to significantly influence Toxoplasma infection among the sampled women. The results of this study justifies the need to include laboratory testing for T. gondii infection during antenatal investigations and to educate women about the parasite in order to prevent maternal and subsequent congenital infections that might have been provoked in-utero.

Open Access Original Research Article

Weight Loss and Nutritional Status of 6-59 Months Children after Positive Deviance/Hearth Approach in Southern Benin Rural Area: Associated Factors to Later Underweight

Mariette Inès G. Zevounou, Waliou Amoussa Hounkpatin, Flora Josiane Chadare, Jaurès H. F. Lokonon, Mohamed Soumanou, Roch Mongbo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33539

Aims: To appreciate the evolution of weight gain by malnourished children and factors associated to children underweight after the Positive Deviance/Hearth sessions.

Study Design: Longitudinal study.

Place and Duration of Study: Districts Ze and Lalo (Southern Benin), from May to August 2014

Methodology: This study was conducted on 98 children aged of 6-59 months who fully participated in Positive Deviance/Hearth (PD/H). During one month, four measurements of weight have been taken on the 77th, 84th, 91th, and 98th day after the beginning of PD/H. Questionnaire was administered to mother on environmental, hygiene practices, and food accessibility of household. Relation among factors of food accessibility, household hygiene, and child nutritional status was sought by an Analysis of Factorial Components.

Results: The children who participated in 12 days of PD/H gained significantly 0.63 kg and 1.13 kg of weight in Lalo and Ze respectively (P<.001). From the 12th to 77th day after the end of PD/H, we noticed a significant weight loss from 10.54 to 10.09 kg in Ze and from 9.75 to 9.19 Kg in Lalo (P=.003). Prevalence of underweight children on the 77th day was 45.8% with 12.5% of severe case and 63.5% with 18.9% of severe case in Lalo and Ze, respectively. The severe underweight children were characterized by households where i) it rarely arrived to be without food ii) one member rarely have a day without eaten but iii) the drinking water is from well.

Conclusion: On the 77th day after the PD/H, the children of our study had weight loss. Food accessibility and household hygiene are mainly the limited factors that could explain the degradation of the nutritional status of children and high prevalence of underweight. This first study conducted in Benin on PD/H approach is more exploratory and helps to appreciate this approach efficacy and sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria and Agriculture: Examining the Cost Implications and Effect on Productivity among Farm Households in Kogi State, Nigeria

M. K. Ibrahim, J. M. David, U. M. Shaibu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33730

Aims: identify the socioeconomic characteristics of farm households in the study area; determine factors that influence malaria incidence rate among farming households; estimated the costs effect of malaria on farm households; and determine the influence of malaria incidence on farmers’ productivity.

Duration of Study: July, 2016 – November, 2016.

Results: of the study showed that 72.5% of the respondents were males and a mean age of 43 years (SD =12.9) was identified among the farm household heads. The average farm size was 2.1 hectares (SD = 0.8) with low access to extension services. The coefficient of farm size (β = 0.123, p=0.05), age (β =-0.048, p=0.05), years spent schooling (β =-0.085, p=0.05), and distance to health facilities (β =-0.043, p=0.05) significantly influenced the incidence rate of malaria among farming households in the State. The mean direct and indirect cost of malaria among farm households in the state was 14, 213.58 Naira and 9, 405.97 Naira respectively. The result further revealed that days lost to malaria, distance to health facility, and time lost to malaria reduced agricultural productivity at 5%, while amount spent on treatment and cost of preservation directly influenced agricultural productivity at 5% level of significance.

Conclusion: free distribution and use of mosquito netting (especially the treated nets) to reduce the effects of mosquito on agricultural productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Tetanus Toxoid Immunization among Women in a Niger Delta Community, Nigeria

Goodlyne Madubuike, Eme Olukemi Asuquo, Vadumere Oriji

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/32391

Aims: To assess the awareness and knowledge of tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization among women in Alakahia, a community in Obio/Akpor LGA, Rivers State in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in August 2016 among 276 pregnant women and women who had given birth in the last one year in Alakahia community, Rivers State.

Methodology: A cluster sampling method was used and respondents were recruited and interviewed with a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire divided in two sections. Section A was on awareness of TT immunization structured from the WHO cluster form for TT immunization and section B was on knowledge of TT immunization. Descriptive statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.

Results: The study showed a high level of awareness about TT immunization (73%); however, out of the 201 (73%) women who were aware of TT immunization, 158 (78.6%) had poor knowledge of TT immunization and its schedule while 43 (21.4%) had good knowledge of TT immunization.

Conclusion: Women in Alakahia community lack adequate knowledge of TT immunization and its proper schedule. There is need for increased education at the community level on TT immunization even from adolescence. Adequate knowledge will improve TT immunization coverage which will make maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination achievable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Insecticide-treated Net and Malaria Parasitemia in Under-fives at National Hospital Abuja

Temiwoluwa M. Omole, O. Ogunfowokan, Akin Moses

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33848

Aim: To determine the relationship of ITN utilisation with malaria parasitemia in under-five children attending the General Paediatric Outpatient Department (GPOPD) in National Hospital Abuja (NHA), as well as, explore factors that affect use / non-use of ITNs, so as to give informed education on ITN use to caregivers of children attending the clinic.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: GPOPD, Family Medicine Department of NHA between April 2014 and July 2014.

Methods: Three hundred and eighty (380) children aged between 6 and 59 months were recruited into the study using systematic sampling. Data about caregivers’ and children’s socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about malaria and ITNs, preferred malaria control method, ownership of ITNs or lack thereof, problems encountered when using ITN, sleeping arrangements, and source of mosquito net, were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was done using Epi-info version 7 statistical software. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Ethical approval was given by the Research and Ethics Committee of NHA. Written informed consent was obtained from all recruited patients.

Results: The level of ITN ownership was 57% (216 of 380) while the level of ITN utilisation was 30% (115 of 380) which revealed a clear gap between ITN ownership and utilisation. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 40% (95% CI 35.1 - 45.1%). The log mean parasite density was 2.14 ± 0.48. There was no statistically significant association between ITN use and socio-demographic characteristics of child and care-giver (age, gender, highest educational qualification, social class, housing structure), knowledge of the cause of malaria, as well as their perception of ITN effectiveness. Among those with malaria parasitemia, there was no statistically significant difference in the parasite density of ITN users and non-users.

Conclusion: A clear gap exists between ITN ownership and utilisation. Also, there was a lack of any statistically significant relationship between ITN use and malaria parasitemia in under-fives within this study setting.