Open Access Short Research Article

A Report on Applying Digital Epiluminescence Dermoscopy to Guide Topical Treatment for Generalised Vitiligo

Antonio Chuh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34381

We have reported on utilising digital epiluminescence dermoscopy to detect the sparing of perifollicular pigments in localised vitiligo. These spotty zones might be the most acute autoimmune battle line.

We saw a 68-year-old gentleman with five-year history of segmental/generalised vitiligo. He declined systemic treatments. These spotty zones mentioned above were identified by epiluminescence dermoscopy. We advised him to apply a very potent topical corticosteroid two times per week to these zones.  Much improvement was seen in two months.  Complete remission was achieved in another two months.

We discussed on the roles of epiluminescence dermoscopy on the diagnosis and treatments of patients with all types of vitiligo where the perifollicular pigment sparing zones were too small to be identifiable by naked eyes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Herbal Medicines Used in the Treatment of Typhoid in the Ga East Municipality of Ghana

Emelia Oppong Bekoe, Christian Agyare, Joseph Sarkodie, Dorothy Dadebo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/31448

In Ghana, majority of the people patronize herbal medicines for the treatment of both chronic and acute ailments as well as infectious and non-infectious diseases. As such, the use of herbs as medicines in the treatment of enteric (typhoid) fever is very widespread.

Aims: This study therefore investigates anti-typhoidal herbal medicinal formulations that are for sale on the Ghanaian market with regards to the contents on the product labels and assesses the various active plant components in the light of documented evidence of their use in the treatment of typhoid.

Methodology: Herbal products for the treatment of typhoid were sampled from herbal medicine shops and pharmacies and assessed for the type of formulation, plant and non-plant constituents, dosage, indications, treatment duration and contraindications.

Results: Majority of the products (87%, n=16) had registration numbers whilst 13% had none. These anti-typhoid formulations were simultaneously recommended for the treatment of malaria (56%) (9 out of 16 products), jaundice (31%), various types of pains (body pains, headache, menstrual pains) (8%), stress (8%) and fatigue (8%). All the preparations had more than one plant as its active constituent. Forty-four percent (44%) contained 2 plants species as the active ingredients, 37% contained between 3 to 5 plant species, 13% contained 6 to 10 plant species and 6% contained more than 10 plant species. The most frequently occurring active plant constituents of these products were Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), Morinda lucida (Rubiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae) and Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae).

Conclusion: In all, thirty-four different plant species belonging to 25 families were found to be present in these products. A literature search on the plants species showed that their traditional use in the treatment of typhoid is well documented and hence their resulting formulations may as well be very effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence Rate and Contributory Factors of Malaria in the Amenfi West District, Ghana

Esther Love Darkoh, John Aseidu Larbi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33700

Aims: To determine the prevalence rate and some contributory factors of malaria in the Amenfi West District of Ghana. This study investigated the prevalence and determinants in predicting malaria status in the Amenfi West District.

Place and Duration of Study: Asankrangwa Catholic Hospital in the Amenfi West District of the Western Region, Ghana between March 2016 and November 2016.

Methodology: A purposive sampling technique was used to select 240 patients of both sexes aged 0- 81 years old at Asankrangwa District Hospital. Venous blood was collected and presence of malaria parasites was observed microscopically on thick smears. Demographic data such as age, sex and the type of malaria control method(s) used were retrieved from patients. All data was recorded and analyzed using SPSS (version 23) statistical software. Categorical data was compared using Pearson’s Chi- Square test set at a significant level of 5%. For parasite density, factor effects were examined using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests where appropriate to investigate statistical differences at 95% confidence interval. Regression analysis was also employed to model the presence (positive) or absence (negative) of malaria in a patient.

Results: Overall malaria prevalence was 27.9% (67/240). Parasite density (P = 0.048) and prevalence (P = 0.000) differed significantly based on age with younger persons recording higher values. Difference in prevalence rate was also found among the blood group types (P = 0.041) but no statistical difference was recorded in relation to parasite density (P = 0.329). Moreover, the logistic regression analysis showed that blood group (P = 0.029), type of malaria control used (P = 0.019), hemoglobin level (P = 0.002) and age (P= 0.002) are statistically significant in determining the malaria status (positive/negative) of an individual; For instance, use of treated nets or being in an older age group decreased a person’s odds of experiencing malaria.

Conclusion: It is therefore suggested that, much emphasis on the use of ITNs should be focused on younger children since they are more vulnerable to malaria infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating Associative Impact of Indoor Residual Spray and Insecticide Treated Nets for Minimizing Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector Population in Bihar (India)

Vijay Kumar, Aarti Rama, Prem Shankar Mishra, Niyamat Ali Siddiqui, Rudra Pratap Singh, Rudra Kumar Dasgupta, Axel Kroeger, Pradeep Das

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/32540

Background: Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) are important tools in the fight against insect vectors of important diseases. In spite of having operational and logistic limitation(s), IRS and ITN are still in practice as conventional tools with mixed results for controlling Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. A combination of both tools might results better for reducing VL vector densities during the attack phase of the VL elimination initiative.

Methods: A comparison-based study was designed for analyzing the field efficacy of a combination strategy of IRS+ITN (PermaNet 3.0®) versus single interventions with IRS and ITNs alone comparing with control respectively. The study was conducted at the villages of Samastipur district of Bihar (India) using aspiration and light traps techniques (i.e., AT and LTT respectively) for collecting sand fly. The numbers of all types of sand flies (male, unfed, fed and gravid female) were recorded during a period of 12 months after the intervention in the three study arms. The bioavailability of insecticide for IRS as well as ITN was also observed at the interval of 3 months with the help of cone bioassay technique established by World Health Organization (WHO).

Results: The observed highest percent-reduction of sand flies (93.59% - 100%) at the sites with combined intervention of IRS+ITN, as compared to the sites without any intervention at control (with 0% reduction) or with single control intervention either with IRS (4.29% - 86.77%) or with ITN (60.18% - 97.07%) followed by the reduction in bioavailability of insecticide in IRS (i.e., 52.38%, 58.33%, 45.45% & 50.00%) and ITN (84.44%, 82.50%, 77.78% & 83.33%) over the period of 12 months since intervention, establishes the success of IRS plus ITN as a combined approach for contaminating vector population. Also, through the house-to-house survey at the end of study period, the acceptance of combined approach for IRS plus ITN by the community was accessed to be highest i.e., 100% as compared to the single-intervention approaches for IRS (87%) and ITN (100%).

Conclusions: Study results advocate the use of the combined strategy during the attack phase of the VL elimination initiative in order to reduce or interrupt disease transmission. It may also be a valid approach during the maintenance phase in hot-spots of VL transmission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison and Evaluation of Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitaemia among Pregnant Women Attending Specialists Hospital, Sokoto, North-Western, Nigeria

K. Mohammed, U. Aminu, T. H. I. Spencer, K. K. Ibrahim, E. I. Ikeh, S. U. Nataala, M. K. Garba

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/32599

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending Specialists Hospital, Sokoto, North-western, Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study designed to compare and evaluate asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women that were recruited during their ante-natal clinic visit in specialist hospital Sokoto.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Specialists Hospital sokoto between March to June, 2016.

Methodology: A total of 205 apparently healthy, confirmed pregnant women within the age of 15 – 45 years attending Specialists Hospital Sokoto, and had not been on any sort of malaria treatment, history of malaria or fever within the last 4 weeks were recruited for this study. Thick and thin blood films were performed for all the women. PCV estimation was also done using microhaematocrit centrifuge method and comparison was made for women with parasitaemia and those without parasitaemia.

Results: Of the two hundred and five pregnant women recruited for this study, 48 (23.4%) had malaria parasitaemia while 157 (76.6%) had no infection. The mean PCV of the women positive to malaria parasitaemia was 30.52 ± 3.71 against 34.30 ± 3.76 for those without parasitaemia (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in the study group was high compare to those without infections and there was associated anaemia in those with parasitaemia. The use of intermittent preventive treatment is recommended for all pregnant women including those who are asymptomatic to forestall complications like maternal anaemia.