Open Access Case Study

Cytodiagnosis of Disseminated Rhinosporidiosis - A Case Report

Rani Bansal, Mamta Gupta, Veenu Jain

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33978

Aim: Fine needle aspiration cytology of palpable lumps is a simple, inexpensive diagnostic modality. The aim of presenting this case is to highlight its utility in diagnosis of a patient presenting with multiple subcutaneous nodules.

Presentation of Case: We report a case of disseminated rhinosporidiosis diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology presenting with swelling in left supraclavicular region and similar swellings over his nose, oral cavity, chest wall, forearm and thigh.

Discussion: Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of the anterior nares and nasopharynx with polypoidal appearance. Subcutaneous tissue involvement with widespread nodules is extremely rare. 

Conclusion: Disseminated Rhinosporidiosis is a rare presentation. Cytomorphological findings are distinctive; FNAC serves as a useful tool in early diagnosis and management of these cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV Co-infections among Patients Attending a Nigerian Tertiary Health Center

S. Nwadioha Iheanacho, M. Odimayo Simidele, M. Amali Ngbede, Isho Thaddeus

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33598

Aim: The study is set to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Drug Resistant-Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the HIV/AIDS endemic community.

Methods: A three -year retrospective study was conducted from November, 2013 to November, 2016 in Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi Nigeria. The subject criteria included all patients above 15 years, suspected of pulmonary TB, treatment naïve (new) and re-treated cases irrespective of HIV status. The procedures involved Cepheid Gene Xpert MTB/Rif system, Ziehl Nelseen staining and HIV serologic testing.

Results: In a total of two thousand nine-hundred and sixty-nine patients suspected of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, only 6.2% (N=183/2969) of patients was detected by Cepheid GeneXpert Mycobacterium/Rifampicin system, while Ziehl Nelseen staining alone detected 2.7% (N=83/2969) (X 2= 5.01; df=1; p=0.05). The age groups at risk were 21-35 years and 35-45 years with 54.6% and 27.4% respectively. Among the 183 patients, 12.0% (N=22/183) of patients were Rifampicin resistant. Seventy-seven per cent (N=17/22) of the Rifampicin Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients was for re treatment, while the remaining 23.0% (N= 5/22) was treatment naïve (X 2 =6.01; df=1; p<0.05). Seventy –one percent (N=130/183) of the patients detected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were HIV sero-positive. All the Rifampicin Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients were HIV sero-positive. Among the Rifampicin sensitive patients; 68.3% (N=110/161) had HIV sero-positive status while 31.7% (N=51/161) was HIV sero-negative respectively.

Conclusion: The prevalence of 6.2% Mycobacterium tuberculosis with 12.0% Rifampicin Resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the study was remarkable in young adult male patients in re-treatment. A hundred per cent total population of Rifampicin Resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients were HIV sero- positive. Therefore, we recommend proper education of the youth, especially in sexual habit and availability of a more robust rapid multi resistance TB drug diagnostic system in order to capture MDR TB and XDR TB across the country, while the HIV program continues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Female Genital Schistosomiasis in Reproductive Tract of Women Attending Kwale Hospital in Kwale County, Kenya

Jane M. N. Gitau, Jane M. N. Gitau, Ng’ethe Muhoho, Ephantus Kabiru

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/32787

Background: Female genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) caused by Schistosoma haematobium is a significant public health problem among women living in endemic areas. An estimated 45 million women in sub-Saharan Africa are infected. Chronic infection is associated with bleeding disturbances, abdominal-pelvic pain, painful sexual intercourse, uterine fibroids, spontaneous abortion, cervical cancer and increased risk for transmission of HIV.

Aim: To determine the infection rate, distribution pattern and associated genital pathology in S. haematobium infection among females of reproductive age in endemic area in Kwale County, Kenya.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional.

Study Area: Kwale level four hospital. Study subjects came from the hospital catchment area.

Methodology: Prevalence of S. haematobium was determined through urine filtration and microscopy for S. haematobium eggs and by detection of both haematuria and proteinuria using strip reagent analysis. Intensity of S. haematobium infection was determined by scoring the number of eggs per 10 ml of urine. Signs of genital pathology were determined through visual assessment of the genitalia by a gynaecologist. SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyze data.

Results: Overall prevalence of S. haematobium was 23%. Intensity of infection was low with majority of infected participants (15.8%) carrying light intensity infections (≤50 eggs/10 ml of urine). Prevalence and intensity of infection was significantly high in women age group 18-23; (χ2 = 5.778; P = 0.017). Signs of genital pathology were recorded in 46.7% of infected women. The results of this study indicate that female genital schistosomiasis is an important health problem in Kwale County and there is need for the Ministry of Health and the County government of Kwale to improve diagnosis and treatment of the disease as well as initiate strategies to control this problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Activity of Sacoglottis gabonnensis Stem Bark Extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Uyo, Nigeria

K. N. Opara, N. I. Udoidung, P. M. E. Ubulom, F. M. Chikezie, N. E. Ononiwu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33710

The quest for alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides against mosquito vectors has necessitated studies on natural plant products. The larvicidal effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of a medicinal plant Sacoglottis gabonnensis stem bark were tested against 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Larval bioassays were carried out at different concentrations (0.45 – 0.75% w/v) of the extracts in accordance with the WHO standard protocol. Mortality was recorded after 24 and 48 exposure hours. The LC50 and LC90­ were also determined. The highest concentration (0.75% w/v) of the ethanolic extract of S. gabonnensis resulted in 80% mortality of Cu. quinquefasciatus with LC50 (2.59) and LC90­ (3.42) and 70% mortality of Ae. aegypti with LC50 (1.22) and LC90­­ (2.31). At a concentration of 0.75% w/v the aqueous extract of S. gabonennensis resulted in 65% mortality of Cu. quinquefasciatus with LC50 (2.84) and LC90­ (3.62) and 60% mortality of Ae. aegypti with LC50 (2.16) and LC90­ (2.70). Cu. quinquefasciatus was not significantly (X2=1.66, df 1, P>0.05) more susceptible to ethanolic extract of the plant than Ae. aegypti. The susceptibility of both mosquito species to the aqueous extract was also not significant (X2=2.20, df 1, P>0.05). This preliminary investigation has revealed that the stem bark of S. gabonnensis could be harnessed in the formulation of potent biocides against mosquito vector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health and Communicable Disease in West Khasi Hill District, India

Daianolin Nongshli

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33303

Aims: To analyse spatial patterns in the distribution of major communicable diseases in West Khasi Hills District.

Study Design: Random sampling technique has been used to collect household data. It has been purpossively selected 28 villages. The criteria selecting this villges are that they are close to the uranium mining site. Around 719 households from these 28 villages were covered for the present study.

Data collected from households have been analysed for each village separately. Data are calculated in excel and for frequencies are used in SPSS software. Separate layers of data have been mapped for each of the demographic parameters for which the household information has been collected through a structured household schedule canvassed through an interview method. Mapping technique has been employed on a GIS platform to get a comprehensive demographic picture of each of the sample villages in each of the distance zone.

Place and Duration of Study:  West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, N.E. India between 2009 and 2011.

Methodology: Data for the present researchhas been collected from a number of villages located around Domiasiat village which is the locus of the proposed uranium mining. The health conditions and the disease prevalence in the area around this village have been assessed by collecting useful information from households in 28 villages selected on the basis of distance criterion.

Results: A study of the morbidity pattern reveals the dominance of communicable diseases as reported by the respondents. The types of sicknesses recorded during the survey shows that the most prevalent type of sickness is malaria that afflicted more than 45.27 percent adult males, 41.20 percent adult females, and 33.18 percent children of the population interviewed. Diarrhea/dysentery affected 32.03 percent of the children, 29.62 percent of the adult males and 28.93 percent of the adult females. Prolonged cold/cough afflicted 27.57 percent of children and 26.52 percent of adult male and 26.12 percent of the adult female population. Respiratory problem accounts for 6.29 percent of children, 4.31 percent of adult females and 3.84 percent of the adult male population. Thirty persons contracted tuberculosis, of which 1.12 percent of adult female, 1.03 percent of adult males and 0.30 percent of the children population. Skin diseases are found among an insignificant 2.63 percent of children, 2.44 percent of the adult male and 2.34 percent of the adult female population.

Conclusion: Morbidity pattern in the study area reveals a clear dominance of communicable diseases which afflicts the children much more than the adults.