Open Access Clinical Practice Article

Roles of Epiluminescence Dermoscopy beyond the Diagnoses of Cutaneous Malignancies and Other Skin Diseases

Antonio Chuh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34851

Epiluminescence dermoscopy was developed mainly for the diagnoses of melanoma and other skin cancers. This technology is also being increasingly applied for the diagnoses of other cutaneous diseases.

With rising popularity and availability, dermoscopes are taking up other roles. We discussed how dermoscopes facilitate education and counselling for patients and parents of patients, modify health-related behaviour, clinical research, and dermoscope-guided operations and procedures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Complementary Feeding Practices of Children Aged 6-23 Months in Rural Area, Southern-Benin: Challenges and Opportunities

Irene M. Mitchodigni, Waliou Amoussa Hounkpatin, Gervais Ntandou-Bouzitou, Celine Termote, Gina Kennedy, D. Joseph Hounhouigan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33877

Aims: This study aims to provide in-depth knowledge of current infant feeding practices in order to create an evidence base and develop well-targeted strategies to reduce the prevalence of child malnutrition.

Study Design: This study is designed by using a descriptive cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in two rural districts, Bopa and Houeyogbe, in Southern Benin from October to December 2013.

Methodology: A total of 1225 mother-infant pairs, aged 6-23 months were randomly selected in seventeen villages through exhaustive sampling. Socio-demographic data of participants were obtained through semi-structured interviews. Complementary feeding practices were assessed using recommended Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators. Statistical analysis were performed with SPSS version 20. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.

Results: Overall, 20% had timely initiation of complementary feeding, whereas 61% and 17% had early and delayed initiation of complementary feeding, respectively. The mean age of introducing solid foods was 4.9 ± 2.3 months. Prevalence of MDD, MMF and MAD was 60%, 71% and 46% respectively. There is no specific complementary foods (CFs) for Benin children. Cereal porridges and extracts from family diets were two categories of complementary foods identified. Complementary food (CF) is characterized by unenriched porridges, mashed family diets and low consumption of fruits and eggs. Most of the children (70%) were fed vegetables consumed individually or mixed with other leaves. The most popular vegetables consumed by the children were Corchorus olitorius (48%), Hibiscus esculentus (22%), Solanum macrocarpon (18%).

Conclusion: Untimely initiation of complementary feeding was predominant. Complementary feeding practices in this area of Benin were suboptimal. The valorization of local biodiversity and traditional recipes was an opportunity to improve quality of child’s diet. Reinforcing the capacity building of stakeholders focused on child feeding may be a crucial step for child well-being.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Molecular Detection of Quinolone-Resistant E. coli in Rectal Swab of Apparently Healthy Cattle in Bangladesh

Md. Montasir Mamun, Jayedul Hassan, K. H. M. Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Md. Alimul Islam, Khalada Zesmin, Md. Bahanur Rahman, Md. Tanvir Rahman

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34404

Emergence of antibiotic resistance is a serious health problem both in human and animal all over the world. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of quinolone-resistant E. coli isolated from apparently healthy cattle in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. A total of 137 rectal swabs was screened among which 95 was found positive for E. coli. Confirmation of isolation of E. coli was done by PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene of E. coli (prevalence 69.3%). Resistance against quinolone is primarily due to activities of qnrS and qnrA gene products. Among these E. coli quinolone-resistant gene qnrS was detected in 11 isolates. None of the isolates were found positive for qnr Agene. The overall prevalence of qnrS positive E. coli was 8.0%. Many of these quinolone-resistant E. coli was multidrug-resistant. Nucleotide sequence analysis of qnrS gene showed homology with the qnrS gene detected in China, Nigeria, Taiwan, Russia, Turkey and USA. All isolates that were resistant to multiple quinolones were found highly sensitive to imipenem, ertapenem and meropenem. The results of this study indicated that apparently healthy cattle harbor quinolone-resistant E. coli which have both clinical and public health significance. If strict regulation on the use of quinolones in food animals is not maintained, these quinolone-resistant E. coli may be transmitted to humans and other animals and may cause serious health problems in future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular detection of quinolone-resistant E. coli in cattle in Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural and Urban Community in South-West Nigeria Using Three Different Definitions

Esther Ngozi Adejumo, Omobolanle Abioye Ogundahunsi, Olusola Adedeji Adejumo, John Sotunsa, Omodele Jagun

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33993

Background: The prevalence of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa because of rapid demographic and epidemiologic transitions. There are several criteria for diagnosing MetS. This study compared the prevalence of MetS in a rural and urban community in South-west Nigeria using three different definitions.

Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted. Multi-stage sampling method was used to select a rural and urban community from two contiguous states in South-west Nigeria. Five hundred and thirty-five apparently healthy subjects aged 18 years and above were consecutively recruited from selected communities. Rural-urban comparison of prevalence of Metabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III) and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definitions was done.

Results: The general prevalence of MetS according to the JIS, IDF and NCEP definitions was 23%, 21.7% and 21.1% respectively. The prevalence of MetS was higher in the urban than rural community irrespective of the definition used (28.2% vs 13.7% NCEP, 30.8% vs 12.2% IDF, 33.3% vs 12.2% JIS) (P< .001). MetS prevalence was higher in females using the JIS (15.8% vs 25.7%) (P =.02) and IDF (13.0% vs 24.9%) (P = .003) definitions. The proportion of males and females with MetS was not significantly different using the NCEP ATP III definition (P = .17).

Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS was high in rural and urban communities in South-west Nigeria regardless of the criteria used. The need for public health measures to reduce the prevalence of MetS in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Candles Emit Hazardous Materials for Human Health and are Indoor Air Pollutants

Ruhullah Massoudi, Amid Hamidi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34965

Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of burning candles from paraffin sources to determine whether indoor environment under that condition is safe and healthy for human.                                                                               

Study Design: Burning chamber (8” x 8” x 26”) attached to a vacuum pump on the top, was constructed locally, and Coconut Charcoal CSC Cat. No. 226-01GWS was purchased from SKC, Inc. The adsorbed emission products on the charcoal were extracted by a given volume of carbon-disulfide, and after filtration injected into a GC/MS equipped with NIST library of compound allowing us to identify all the components.                                                                           

Place and Duration of Study: All the study was carried out at South Carolina State University from January 2008 till June 2010.

Methodology: A candle burning chamber was constructed, while candles were burning under normal condition, the emission products were adsorbed on coconut charcoal and extracted with carbon disulfide. The extracted samples were injected into a GC/MS system under the temperature and flow rate conditions to produce chromatograms and also to identify those substances present in the samples. The ill-health effects of all emission products are available in literature.

Results: Several kinds of paraffin candles were examined, the samples produced various hazardous products including benzene, toluene, and alkenes.                         

Conclusion: Paraffin candles are hazardous for human health to be burned in enclosed and limited areas.