Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Characterisation of Escherichia coli Isolates from Fish, Diarrheic and Healthy Children in Zanzibar, Tanzania

A. R. Rabia, P. N. Wambura, S. I. Kimera, R. H. Mdegela, A. Mzula, F. A. Khamis

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34262

Aims: This study was carried out with the objective of investigating E. coli virulence factors, antibiotic sensitivity, presence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase [ESBL] and serotype H1 O157 in E. coli from fish foods in comparison with those from healthy and diarrheic children in Zanzibar.

Study Design: Repeated cross sectional design was used to collect samples from fish, vendors and fish consumers through the seasons. Cross sectional design was used to collect children faecal samples from Mnazimmoja referral hospital.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Zanzibar between August 2014 and June 2016

Methodology: A total of 113 E. coli isolates from fish (58), diarrheic (35) and healthy children (20) less than five years old were screened. Serotyping was used for detection of serotype O157 and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL) production by disc diffusion using Cepodoxime/clavulanic acid (10/1μg) discs.  Hemolysin was detected by hemolysis in human blood agar, serum resistance factors by growth inhibition of E. coli that was mixed and incubated with human sera, Hemagglutinins by Hemagglutination of RBCs and Gelatinase enzyme by production of clear zone of degradation of gelatine. Statistical analysis was done using Medcalc statistical software. Statistical difference in virulence factors possession data in E. coli isolates between fish, diarrheic and healthy children were subjected to analysis of variance [ANOVA], where p<0.05 was judged indicative of significant difference.

Results: Virulence factors detected in their order of prevalence were hemolysins (21.2%), serum resistance (12.2%), hydrophobicity (8.8%), Hemagglutinins (4.4%), and Gelatinase (2.7%). Virulence factors were detected in 82.9% and 38% of diarrheic children and fish isolates respectively. E. coli O157 serotype was detected in all 3 sources with higher percentage in diarrheic children (6.8%). Extended spectrum β-lactamase E. coli producers were found in fish (6.8%) and diarrheic samples (17.1%) but not from healthy children. Multidrug resistance [MDR] was detected in fish (44.9%), diarrheic children (82.8%) and healthy children (10%). Ampicillin (100%; 22.4%) and Tetracycline (82.9%; 44.8%) exhibited high antibiotic resistance both in diarrheic children and fish respectively. Fish foods could be sources of pathogenic and antibiotic resistant E. coli possessing multiple virulence factors. Moreover O157 serotypes, ESBL producing and multidrug resistant E. coli were also detected in fish foods.

Conclusion: It is therefore emphasised to improve hygiene in the fish value chain as well as raise awareness and frequent monitoring to fish stakeholders in Zanzibar.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Pattern and Trend of Non-communicable Diseases in Children in Jos, North Central Nigeria: A Four-year Review

Esther S. Yiltok, Helen O. Akhiwu, Ibrahim I. Abok, Olukemi O. Ige, Emeka U. Ejeliogu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34810

Aims: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming significant causes of morbidity and mortality. However very little information is available in our setting on the trend of NCDs in children. The aim is to determine the pattern and trend of NCDs in children in Jos, Nigeria.

Study Design: This is a retrospective study of patients that were admitted and managed for NCDs. The relevant clinical information was extracted from the hospital records.

Place and Duration of Study: The Emergency Paediatrics Unit (EPU) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos Nigeria, between January 2012 and December 2015.

Methodology: The study was a retrospective descriptive study where all records of children admitted into the EPU of JUTH within the period under review were retrieved. The bio-data of all patients and diagnoses made during the course of admission were documented. Those with inconclusive diagnoses and neonates were excluded. Data collected were entered into Epi Info version 7.2. The data was presented in frequencies and percentages and categorical variables were analyzed with the chi-square test. P value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.

Results: A total of 2273 children’s records were reviewed of which 36.7% had NCDs with the NCDs prevalence ranging from 29.5% - 40.5%. The three commonest NCDs were sickle cell disease (SCD), seizure disorder and severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). There was a steady increase in the prevalence of seizures and PEM over the period. The prevalence of the diseases fluctuated over the years under review.

Conclusion: The burden of diseases in children appears to be shifting towards non-communicable diseases as shown in the rising trend of NCD in our study.  Therefore, there is an urgent need for relevant stakeholders to develop and ensure implementation of policies to curtail this menace which is also increasing the morbidity and mortality of children especially those less than five years of age.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pesticide Use among Farmers in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria: A Descriptive Study

N. C. Okafoagu, M. O. Oche, N. Lawal

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34922

Aims: The study aimed to assess the pattern of pesticide use and application practices among farmers and factors influencing such practices in Sokoto, North western Nigeria.

Study Design: It was a cross sectional descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: it was carried out in April 2017 among crop farmers in the 4 agricultural zones of Sokoto state.

Methodology: A two stage sampling technique was used to recruit 220 farmers. A semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data which was imputed and analyzed using SPSS IBM version 20.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 35.95 ± 14.37 years. Only 10 (4.5%) were females. Most 143 (65.3%) used pesticides in the past year with 63 (45.7%) using it occasionally. More than half 83 (60.1%) attested that when purchasing pesticides, they were supplied with safety instructions but only 37 (26.8%) followed the instruction. Of the 220 respondents, only 19 (13.8%) mixed pesticides with hands wearing gloves while majority 131 (94.9%) applied pesticides by spraying. Unsafe practices identified were eating food while spraying 35 (26.7%), storage of empty pesticide can at home 77 (55.8%), using the empty pesticide bottle to store water at home. Factors found to be statistically significantly associated with pesticide use were respondents’ age (X2 = 83.35; P < 0.05); method of farming (X2 = 3.75; P = 0.05) and years of working (X2 = 64.48; P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The study identified that most of the farmers used pesticides, did not follow instructions while spraying and exhibited some unsafe practices while using the pesticide. It is therefore imperative that the farmers are educated on the risks associated with pesticide use and how to prevent such risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipids Levels in Patients with Uncomplicated Malaria Due to Plasmodium falciparum

José Luiz Fernandes Vieira, Juan Gonzalo Bardalez Rivera

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34257

Changes in lipid profile are common in adult patients with malaria, but only a few studies have evaluated such lipid abnormalities in uncomplicated falciparum malaria cases from the South America. This is a prospective study designed to evaluate transient lipid abnormalities in adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria as well as to assess if the parasite count correlates with the lipid levels at admission. A total of 60 adult males were included in the study, of which 30 had the slide-confirmed infection by P. falciparum. Serial blood samples were collected at admission and on days 3, 14 and 43. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) were measured by colorimetric methods. At admission, the levels of total cholesterol, LDL and HDL were significantly lower in malaria cases compared to healthy controls, but the levels of triglycerides were significantly higher in these patients. There are significant changes in lipid levels in the follow up. The lipid levels were not associated with the parasite count. In conclusion, there are significant lipid abnormalities in the adults with low levels of P. falciparum infection and mild signs and symptoms of the disease, which are not associated with parasitemia at admission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Syphilis among Voluntary Blood Donors in Rural Southwestern Uganda: A Retrospective Study

Richard Onyuthi Apecu, Edgar M. Mulogo, Fred Bagenda, Andrew Byamungu, Yap Boum II, Joel Bazira, Frederic Byarugaba

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34605

Despite the improvement with blood screening, transfusion transmissible infectious (TTIs) agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis are still among some of the challenges in the blood safety for the recipient in Uganda.  The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the four TTIs among the voluntary blood donors in southwestern Uganda. A retrospective study was conducted using one year data (January 2014 to December 2014) from a regional blood bank in southwestern Uganda.  Routine  screening  by  the  blood  bank  included  anti  HIV,  hepatitis  B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis C using the Abbott ARCHITECT i2000 SR analyzer. Both Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test and Treponema Pallidun Haeagglutination (TPHA) tests were used for detection of syphilitic infection. 5.67% of blood donors were positive for any of the screening tests and 0.34% had multiple infections. The overall seroprevalence was 1.03%, 1.87%, 2.22%, and 0.54% for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis respectively. The most common dual combinations were HBV-HCV 51.8 %, HIV-HCV 22.7% and HIV-HBV 10.0%. Triple infection with HIV-HBV-HCV was 3.7% and HIV- HBV-Syphilis was 1.3%. There were no quadruple infections detected in this study. There was statistically significant increase of HIV seropositivity among the age group of donors above 47 years (p=0.001). A substantial prevalence of TTIs was found among the blood donors in southwestern Uganda.