Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Spectrum of Brucellosis from a Tertiary Care Centre

Kanne Padmaja, Sukanya Sudhaharan, Vemu Lakshmi, M. V. S. Subbalaxmi, Palanki Surya Satya Gopal

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35018

Background: Brucellosis is an under reported, emerging zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, which is particularly endemic in many countries of the Mediterranean basin. We reviewed thirteen cases of culture proven Brucellosis and their clinical manifestations admitted at our Institute. 

Materials and Methods: Medical records of thirteen cases of Brucellosis were reviewed between Jan 2013 to June 2017.Demographic data, clinical manifestations, clinical complications and outcome of these cases were analyzed.

Results: The age range of patients was between 26-57 years with a female preponderance (7 females and 6 males). All the patients had history of occupational exposure to cattle and they were hailing from rural areas (13/13). In 8 patients with Fever of unknown origin (FUO) fever was the main presenting symptom and the duration of fever was for more than 3 months with associated joint pains, headache and vomiting. Five patients had features suggestive of Infective Endocarditis (IE) with vegetation on Aortic valve. 13/13 cases were positive for Brucella culture.5/13 cases positive for Brucella antibodies were also positive by culture. 8/13 cases were negative for Brucella antibodies.

Conclusion: Early diagnosis of brucellosis facilitates prompt therapy that helps in timely management of this Infectious disease with a successful outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Perceived Body Weight and Body Mass Index among Health Care Workers in a Limited Resource Secondary Health Care Facility in North Central Nigeria

M. D. Gyang, M. Dankyau, J. K. A. Madaki, B. A. Gyang

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35502

Aims: Overweight and obesity are leading causes of preventable deaths globally and healthcare workers should educate patients and the public about the danger of obesity. This is enhanced if they have appropriate perception of their weight. We aimed to determine the relationship between perceived body weight and body mass index among healthcare workers in a secondary healthcare facility.

Study Design: Cross sectional study using stratified random sampling technique.

Place and Duration of Study: Vom Christian Hospital, a faith-based, secondary health facility in Jos South, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria, in January 2015.

Methodology: Using a structured questionnaire, socio-demographic variables, risk factors for overweight/obesity and participant’s self-perception of weight was obtained. Actual weight status based on BMI (Kg/m2) was calculated.

Results: Only 30 (19.4%) perceived themselves to be overweight/obese, but 86 (55.5%) were overweight/obese based on BMI. Considering self-perception as a screening test and actual BMI as gold standard, the sensitivity was 89.4%, specificity 38.2%, positive predictive value 51.6%, negative predictive value 82.9%, diagnostic accuracy 60.0%, likelihood ratio of a positive test 1.4, likelihood ratio of a negative test 0.3 and diagnostic odds 5.2. Those who practiced for ≥10 years (OR 3.15, CI 1.07 – 9.30) were more likely to perceive themselves to be overweight/obese; male workers were less likely to have a perception of being overweight/obese (OR 0.26, CI 0.09 – 0.78; and those who did some exercise were less likely to have a self-perception of being overweight/obese (OR 0.31, CI 0.11 – 0.88). Staff who had practiced for ≥10 years were more likely to be actually overweight/obese (OR 2.74, CI 1.14 – 6.60,) and male workers were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR 0.45, CI 0.21 – 0.95).

Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and staff were five times more likely to be overweight compared to their weight self-perception.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Five Year Retrospective Study of Vascular Tumours at Federal Medical Center Makurdi and Benue State University Teaching Hospital

P. Denen Akaa, R. A. Vhriterhire, E. Agada, B. A. Ojo, B. A. Eke, C. N. Ahachi, D. Dzuachii

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34925

Aim: To determine the prevalence of vascular tumours, and their morphology at Federal Medical Centre and Benue State University Teaching Hospital Makurdi.

Study Design: Retrospective study of vascular tumours at the two tertiary healthcare institutions.

Methodology: All the cases of vascular tumours seen, histopathologically diagnosed and managed between March 2012 and February 2017 at the two hospitals were studied. Data collected from the patient’s files included age, sex, anatomical site, and the histopathological diagnosis.

Results: Fifty nine patients with vascular tumours that were histopathologically diagnosed during the 5 year period were studied. There were 23 (39%) males and 36 (61%) females giving a male female ratio of 1:1.6. The age group 21 – 30 years was mostly affected by various types of vascular tumours. Benign tumours were the commonest and occurred in 36 (61%) patients. Intermediate (locally aggressive/rarely metastasizing) tumours constituted 21 (35.6%) cases. Malignant tumours were 2 (3.4%) in numbers. Most of the tumours 36 (61%) occurred in the head and neck region.

Conclusion: Benign tumours are still the commonest vascular tumours. Human Immune Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/ AIDS) pandemic is increasing the number of cases and severity of Kaposi sarcoma, an intermediate rarely metastasizing vascular tumour. There is need for more health education and improved healthcare geared towards the prevention and treatment of the Kaposi disease. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with Anemia in Children with P. vivax Malaria from Brazilian Amazon Basin

Laelia Maria Barra Feio Brasil, Jose Luiz Fernandes Vieira, Rosa Maria Dias, Eliete da Cunha Araújo, Bianca da Conceição Cabral, Ana Maria Revoredo da Silva Ventura, Marcieni Ataíde de Andrade

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34904

Anemia is a common and frequently severe consequence of P. vivax infection. The incidence rate and the severity depend on several factors such as age, endemic area, and pregnancy. In Brazilian Amazon basin, only a few studies focused on the factors associated with anemia in children with malaria. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence and the contributing factors for anemia in children with vivax malaria infection. The data were collected during the clinical interviews with the guardians of the children and the hemoglobin levels were measured by spectrophotometric method. The number of children included in the study was 48. The average age was 8 years (range from 6-10 years). The distribution of gender was similar among all the children included in the study, but there was a high occurrence of anemia in female children. At admission, all children reported earlier episodes of malaria as well as had shown signs and symptoms of the disease mainly chills, headache, and gastrointestinal disorders. Anemia was found in 56% of the children included in the study. Hemoglobin levels were not correlated with the parasitemia in both anemic and non-anemic children. However, hemoglobin levels were associated with both the gender and the presence of fever at admission. The latter may be considered risk factors for anemia in this age group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Candida albicans in Patients in the ICU of a Brazilian Hospital School and in vitro Susceptibility of Isolated Yeasts to Extra-virgin Coconut Oil

Evandro Leão Ribeiro, Sibelle Teodoro Faleiro, Cerise de Castro Campos, Maria de Lourdes Breseguelo, Flávia Liara Massaroto Cessel Chagas, Géssica Viviane de Oliveira, Igor Daniel Alves Ribeiro, Clever Gomes Cardoso

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35574

Aims: To verify the presence and growth of Candida in oral samples from hospitalized patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) the and to detect the in vitro susceptibility of isolated yeasts to extra-virgin coconut oil.

Study Design:  This is a cross-sectional study used to detect oral Candida among  hospitalized patients in Intensive Care Unit in specific time interval.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: ICU of the Hospital das Clínicas (HC - hospital school) of the Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG) (ICU/HC/UFG), between May to October 2015.

Methodology: Isolation and the identification from cultures of oral Candida derived from patients of the ICU/HC/UFG were performed according to Kreeger van-RIJ. In triplicate, these C. albicans yeasts were seeded in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with chloramphenicol with the addition of commercial use extra-virgin coconut oil, and filtered at concentrations from 5 to 50%. Petri dishes with culture medium and varied concentrations of coconut oil were subjected to 37°C / 24 h, and those that did not exhibit growth of fungal colonies were considered positive.

Results: There was a significant increase in the number of patients colonized with Candida yeasts in the first 72 hours after ICU admission, followed by stabilization at 96 hours. The Candida species isolated was Candida albicans. All cultures of oral C. albicans from ICU / HC / UFG patients, regardless of patients’ length of stay, were susceptible to the concentration of 30% coconut oil present in the culture medium of SDA plus antibiotic.

Conclusions: Keeping patients in the ICU/HC/UFG influenced the number of individuals with Candida yeasts in the buccal cavity, particularly in the first 72 hours. Albicans is the Candida species most commonly detected in the buccal mucosa of patients undergoing hospital intensive care. Extra-virgin coconut oil proved to have a natural antifungal effect in inhibiting oral C. albicans isolates.