Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors of Road Traffic Crashes among Intercity Drivers in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria

Akinola A. Fatiregun, Temitope O. Alonge, Adewale M. Adejugbagbe, Ambrose Rukewe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35482

Aim: Road Traffic Crashes (RTCs) have emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. In this report, we explored the prevalence and risk factors of self-reported RTC among intercity drivers in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was conducted.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted on the four major highways (Abeokuta, Lagos, Oyo/Ogbomosho, and Ife) that connect Ibadan in November, 2012.

Methodology: A road-side survey was done in collaboration with Federal Road Safety Corps of Nigeria, Oyo State Command on 200 consenting long distance drivers. Data were obtained on the socio-demographic characteristics, psychoactive substance use, and experience of RTC; and analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression model with the alpha level of significance set at 0.05.

Results: Majority (98.9%) of the drivers were males with mean age of 39.7±10.1 years. The substances reportedly used by the respondents included medications (46.5%), alcohol (33.5%) and herbs (43.0%). The life time prevalence of self-report crashes was 16%. The significant predictors of RTCs were being located driving along Abeokuta expressway (OR=4.1, 95% CI, 1.4-12.2) and having previous experience of licence suspension (OR=4.9, 95% CI= 2.0-12.0).

Conclusion: Interventions to reduce RTCs may be location specific and have to address causes of licence suspension among drivers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Laboratory Based Surveillance of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Four Provinces of Northern Thailand (2012-2016)

Punnarai Veeraseatakul, Somkhid Thichak, Salakchit Chutipongvivate

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35812

Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood exanthema, characterized by a brief febrile illness, sore in the mouth and vesicular lesions on the hands, feet and mouth. HFMD is caused by enteroviruses, mainly enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). An outbreak of HFMD was reported in Thailand in 2012 with incidence of 70.48 per 100,000 populations. Endemicity of these viruses across Thailand has been suspected.

Methodology: A total of 134 stool specimens of suspected HFMD patients from four Northern provinces; Chiangmai, Lampang, Lamphun and Mae Hong Son were analyzed from 2012 to 2016 using RT-PCR based detection method.

Results: Enteroviruses were detected in 74 specimens (55.2%), of which 27 were of CA16 (36.5%), 24 of EV71 (32.4%) and remaining 23 of other enteroviruses (31.1%). These results confirmed circulation of EV71 and CA16 in this region and causing HFMD. The young children below five years were predominant in the study group.

Conclusion: Laboratory based surveillance confirms the endemicity of enteroviruses in this defined geographical area and occurrence of such cases should be suspected and confirmation undertaken.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Training on Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance among Surveillance Officers in Ondo State, Nigeria

Akinola A. Fatiregun, Bitrus S. Bawa, Adewale Moses Adejugbagbe, Elvis E. Isere

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35559

Aim: We assessed the immediate impact of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance training on the knowledge of AFP surveillance among AFP surveillance personnel, and identify factors associated with changes in knowledge following the training. 

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was conducted.

Place and Duration of Study: A quasi-experimental, before-and-after study was conducted in Akure, Ondo State Nigeria in April, 2016.

Methodology: The training was conducted among 54 surveillance personnel which included the Disease Surveillance and Notification Officers (DSNOs) and assistants as well as the state surveillance officers. Agenda and training materials were supplied by the WHO country office (WCO), and adapted and modified in line with the present AFP surveillance challenges of the state. Data were obtained on the socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of AFP surveillance; and analyzed using McNemar and Pearson Chi-square as well as paired and unpaired t-test, with the alpha level of significance set at .05.

Results: Majority (70.4%) of the participants were males with mean age of 42.9±9.2 years. Significantly, the mean score of post-test (40.0±5.0) was higher than that of pre-test (31.2±8.5), P= .001. The mean score of performance of the female participants was significantly higher at post-test (40.8±4.3) compared to the males (37.4 ±5.3) P= .017. Similarly, participants with more than 2 years’ experience on AFP surveillance had higher mean score (40.9±4.4) at post-test compared to those with less than 2 years’ experience (32.3±8.7) P= .046. Those that have received two or more trainings on AFP surveillance had higher mean score (40.9±4.4) at post-test compared to those that have never or have received a training on AFP (37.4±4.8) P = .011.

Conclusion: The training proved to be relevance at the time it was conducted as it impacted knowledge on the AFP surveillance personnel. However, there is the need to assess the correlation between knowledge and practice in subsequent surveillance performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combination Therapy of Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides on Malaria Parasite Count and Its Effect on Some Biochemical Parameters in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

Olusegun M. Akanbi, Jamiu A. Saliu, Aderotimi Adejuyigbe, Tobiloba Adefala, Abel Goodluck, Damilola Adedoyin

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35021

Background: The introduction of Artemisinin Combination Therapy by WHO was done to prevent drug resistance to malaria. Unfortunately, these drugs are unaffordable to most of the people living in malaria endemic areas; therefore the use of medicinal plants is common among the people living in malaria endemic areas. Among the medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria are Anogeissus leiocarpusand Terminalia avicennioides.

Aim: This work studied the combination therapy of methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus andTerminalia avicennioides on parasitemia count and its effects on the liver function, body weight and lipid profiles in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

Methodology: Mice used for this study were divided into six groups. The first group was neither infected with Plasmodium berghei nor treated with any drugs (normal control). The second group was infected with Plasmodium berghei but not treated (negative control), the third group was infected and treated with artemether-lumefantrine at 5 mg/kg body weight (positive control). The fourth, fifth and sixth groups were infected and treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of combined methanolic leaf extracts of A.leiocarpus and T. avicennioides respectively. The parasitemia was monitored for four days and parasite was counted using microscope. All biochemical parameters were determined.

Results: There was significant increase (P<0.05) in the parasite density in negative group when compared with other groups. Parasitaemia counts were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the mice treated with 400 mg/kgbdwt when compared with other infected groups. HDL and body weight of experimental animal used, were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the group treated with 100 mg/kgbdwt when compared with the group treated with 400 mg/kg, while liver enzymes activities  were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the group treated with 400 mg/kg.

Conclusion: Although the antiplasmodial activity of combined methanolic leaf extracts of A. leiocarpus andT. avicennioides was higher at 400 mg/kg body weight but its effect on liver function, body weight and lipid profile was best at 100 mg/kgbdwt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution of a Disease Surveillance System: An Increase in Reporting of Human Monkeypox Disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2001-2013

Nicole A. Hoff, Reena H. Doshi, Brian Colwell, Benoit Kebela-Illunga, Patrick Mukadi, Mathias Mossoko, D’Andre Spencer, Jean-Jacque Muyembe-Tamfum, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Jamie Lloyd-Smith, Anne W. Rimoin

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35885

Objective: Evaluating the effectiveness of a surveillance system, and how it improves over time has significant implications for disease control and prevention. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) was implemented to estimate the burden of disease, monitor changes in disease occurrence, and inform resource allocation. For this effort we utilized national passive surveillance data from DRC’s IDSR to explore reporting trends of human monkeypox (MPX) from 2001 to 2013. 

Methods: We obtained surveillance data on MPX cases occurring between January 2001 and December 2013 from the DRC Ministry of Health (MoH). Phases of the surveillance system, yearly trends in reporting and estimated incidence for MPX were analyzed using SAS v9.2 and Health Mapper.

Results: Between 2001 and 2013, three discrete surveillance phases were identified that described the evolution of the surveillance system. Overall, an increase in suspected MPX cases was reported, beyond what would be expected from simply an improved reporting system. When restricting the analysis to the “stable phase,” national estimated incidence increased from 2.13 per 100,000 in 2008 to 2.84 per 100,000 in 2013.

Conclusions: The reported increase in MPX, based on an evolving surveillance system, is likely to be a true increase in disease occurrence rather than simply improvements to the surveillance system. Further analyses should provide critical information for improved prevention and control strategies and highlight areas of improvement for future data collection efforts.