Open Access Short Research Article

Maximum Inhibitory Dilution of Water Suspension Garlic Extract against oral Candida albicans Isolated from Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit

Evandro Leão Ribeiro, Flávia Liara Massaroto Cessel Chagas, Maria de Lourdes Breseguelo, Géssica Viviane de Oliveira, Lorranny de Jesus Gomes, Adriano Luis Fernandes Crocetti, Clever Gomes Cardoso

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35874

Aims: To determine the maximum inhibitory dilution (MID) of a water suspension of garlic extract against oral yeasts of Candida albicans isolated from patients hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

Study Design:  This is a cross-sectional study used to determine the effect of garlic extract against oral Candida collected from hospitalized patients in ICU.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Oral yeasts of Candida albicans isolated from patients in ICU of the Hospital das Clínicas (HC - hospital school) of the Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG) (ICU/HC/UFG).

Methodology: A bulb of 5 g of fresh garlic was peeled and crushed in a sterile beaker; 0.16 g of the garlic mass obtained was diluted in 100 mL of sterile water and left to soak from 6 to 8 hours and covered in a laminar flow hood. After manual homogenization of the garlic and water solution and filtration, 10 serial dilutions from 1/2 to 1/1024 (800 to 1.56 µg/mL) were made in sterile test tubes containing 5 mL of Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB) with the addition of chloramphenicol. Suspensions in autoclaved water, McFarland standard no. 3, of each sample of Candida yeasts from the oral cavity of 90 patients hospitalized in an ICU were prepared and 1 mL of homogenized Candida solution added to each test tube with its respective dilution. The test tubes were kept at a temperature of 37°C/24 h. The reading of the MID of each oral sample of Candida albicans in the presence of garlic water homogenized in SDB resulted from macroscopic observation of the first maximum dilution in which there was not turbidity of the Candidaisolate evaluated.

Results: All the oral cultures of Candida albicans were sensitive to the MID of 1/32 of garlic water solution.

Conclusion: The garlic water suspension proved capable of inhibiting in vitro growth of oral yeasts of Candida albicans of patients from a hospital ICU, showing potential fungistatic action in relation to the fungus evaluated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Altitude and Relative Hypoxia on Post-extraction Socket Wound Healing: A Clinical Pilot Study

Samuel Ebele Udeabor, Muhannad Abdulrhman Halwani, Saad Awadh Alqahtani, Saif Ahmed Alshaiki, Amer Mohammed Alqahtani, Saad Mohammed Alqahtani

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36105

Background: Prolonged hypoxia is known to delay wound healing and in places of high altitudes, hypoxia is a major physiologic challenge. It is however yet to be seen if relative hypoxia in high altitude areas influences intraoral wound healing.

Aim: A prospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical pattern of healing of post-extraction socket wound following simple extraction in an established high altitude location.

Methodology: Thirty-one patients referred to oral surgery clinic for simple (intra-alveolar) exodontia were included in this study. The patients’ bio data, indications for extraction and the tooth or teeth to be extracted were documented on the day of treatment. Simple extractions were performed and patients given post-operative instructions without antibiotics prescription. They were subsequently assessed on days 3 and 7 post-extraction for alveoli wound healing. Data recorded were: presence or absence of pain, day of pain onset, duration of pain, type of healing complication and body temperature.

Results: Fifty-one extraction sockets were evaluated for alveoli healing during the course of the study. The mean age of the patients was 42.84±12.8 years and caries was the commonest indications for extraction. Out of these, 39 (76%) healed uneventfully, whereas 12 (24%) developed healing complications. Alveolar osteitis (dry socket) accounted for 9 (18%) and acutely infected alveoli 3 (6%) of the complications. Posterior teeth have the highest incidence of complications (67%). Pain in patients with alveolar osteitis lasted for more than 5 days whereas acutely infected alveoli presented with only mild pain, which lasted for not more than 3 days.

Conclusion: Uneventful healing occurred in most of the alveoli assessed. However, this was lower than what has been previously reported in the literatures. In addition, the 18% incidence of dry socket recorded in our study far exceeded what other previous studies observed in lowland regions. We can therefore conclude from this study that more complications of alveolar healing are more likely from high altitude areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vivo Anti-tumor Evaluation of Dihydroartemisinin-Derived Endodisulphide on MNU-induced Liver Cancer in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Imoh Emmanuel Udoh, Jonah Sydney Aprioku, Iyeopu Minakiri Siminialayi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35293

Aims: The study evaluated the antitumor potentials of a disulphide-substituted derivative of dihydroartemisinin (sDHA) on chemically induced cancer of the liver in Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with its parent compound, dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and a standard anticancer drug.

Study Design: Animals were divided into seven experimental and three control groups (n=10 per group). Cancer was induced in experimental groups followed by administration of experimental agents, while control groups received either N-methy-N-nitrosourea (MNU), Tween 80 (vehicle) or distilled water alone.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was done in Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria in 2015-2016.

Methodology: MNU (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as single dose to induce cancer in experimental groups, followed by oral treatment with sDHA (37.42, 74.83 or 112.25 mg/kg/day), DHA (57.45, 114.89 or 172.34 mg/kg/day) or cyclophosphamide (0.71 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Positive control group received only MNU, negative control group received only distilled water (0.3 ml/day), while experimental control group received only Tween 30 (0.3 ml/day). Drug treatments commenced 10 days after MNU injection and animals were observed for 52 days after drug treatments and sacrificed. Serum levels of CA-27-29, 8-OHdG and SOD were measured using ELISA method; and using immunohistochemical tissue staining techniques, Bcl-2 and Ki67 protein expressions were analyzed in hepatic cells.

Results: MNU caused elevation (P <.0001) in CA-27-29 and 8-OHdG; and reduction (P<.0001) in SOD. Hepatic cells of MNU alone treated rats demonstrated strong immunoreactivity for Bcl-2 and Ki67 (≥75%). Oral treatments of sDHA or DHA resulted in dose-dependent reductions of MNU-induced CA-27-29 and 8-OHdG elevations (P<.001) but had no effect on SOD. Additionally, MNU induced Bcl-2 and Ki67 positive immunoreactive expressions were reduced to 25-50% by sDHA and DHA; DHA showing greater effect. Cyclophosphamide reversed all the MNU induced toxic effects.

Conclusions: sDHA possesses antitumor activity against liver cancer; has lesser efficacy than DHA, but both drugs are less effective than cyclophosphamide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antihelminthic Efficacy of Mebendazole 500 mg against Soil- Transmitted Helminths in a High Risk Area of Cameroon

Ngo Ngué Thérése Nadyne, Nkengazong Lucia, Nkoa Thérése, Adamou Mfopa, Ngué Monique, Motsebo Amede, Moyou- Somo Roger, Nukenine Elias Nchiwan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35402

Background: The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale) cause the highest burden on public health particularly in the sub-saharian regions of Africa. Although albendazole (ABZ) or mebendazole (MEB) is widely used as preventive antihelminthic treatment, there still exist variation in the efficacy of these drugs and standard threshold efficacy limits are not yet well established for all the three STHs.

Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of single dose Mebendazole (500mg) against these three STHs.

Methodology: A random control trial was conducted among school children residing in a high risk area of Cameroon. A toatal of  410 school-aged children in the Lolodorf neighbourhood were screened using the Kato katz technic followed by treatment of participants with a single dose of mebendazole (500 mg).Ten weeks post-treatment, children provided a single stool sample which was examined using the same diagnostic method. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CRs)  and Egg  Reduction rate (ERRs).

Results: Globally, 259 (63.2%) were infected for one or more STHs.The highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (93.9%) followed by hookworms (70.8%) and T. trichiura (60.7%), for an overall CR of 59.1%. CRs varied considerable by age for hookworms and by type of infection for T. trichiura and hookworms. The prevalence reduction rate was highiest for A. lumbricoides (91.4%) followed by hookworms  (61.0%) and T. trichiura (46.3%).  ERRs were highiest for A. lumbricoides (94.5%) while this values were low for hookworms (52.9%) and T. trichiura (39.9%). The ERRs were affected for  T. trichiura and hookworms by pre-treatment egg count for sex, different classes of infection intensity and types of infection.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest the efficacy of  single dose mebendazole 500 mg against A. lumbricoidesand to a lesser extent on hookworms with low drug effect on T. trichiura. Further development and validation of standard protocols for antihelminthic drugs efficacy has to be established.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Packaged Drinking Water, Quality Regulations and Public Health: Exploring Potability and Safety Gap Implications for Public Health in Nigeria

U. U. Epundu, E. D. Adinma, N. N. Ezeama, O. F. Emelumadu, B. O. Ogbonna

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35846

Background: Many Nigerians in towns and villages depend on packaged water for their daily water need. Contaminated water is a major source of distribution of pathogens. The increasing prevalence of water borne diseases has created a need to explore the state of packaged water meant for public consumption and underline the gaps for interventions.

Objective: This study discussed the state of packaged water in Nigeria to generate evidence and information for interventions, planning, and policy towards the provision of potable drinking water for the public.

Methods: The study was a narrative overview of relevant literature from verifiable sources published in the English Language and lasted from January 2015 to April 2017. Literature search utilised PubMed, Medline, Embase and Google Scholar to identify studies that explored the quality of packaged water. The search terms included potable water, packaged water, quality, regulations, pathogens and Nigeria, used individually and in series where necessary, with relevant link words and truncations. We used cross-referencing to identify additional articles. Only articles published in the English Language with standard methods were included in the study.

Results: Over 4.6% of Nigerians consume water packaged in sachets or bottles. A bacteriological survey of packaged water in western Nigeria showed contamination with Salmonella species and/or Escherichia coli in 94 out of 108 samples. Out of 11 sachet and 6 bottled water brands randomly selected from commercial sellers during a study in Nsukka, south-east Nigeria, two bottled water brands met the zero criterion for presence of coliforms as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Other brands of sachet and bottled water had varying levels of total coliforms, with the highest levels of 14/ml and 29/ml seen in 1 bottled and 1 sachet brand.

Conclusion: Packaged drinking water for commercial consumption in Nigeria has good physical properties but not totally free from contaminants and pathogens.