Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Microalbumin with Biochemical and Anthropometric Parameters in Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in Southern Nigeria

O. E. Onovughakpo-Sakpa, E. Ayinbuomwan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34919

The renal manifestations of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) can range from haematuria and abnormal tubular function to massive proteinuria and end stage renal disease. This study was designed to screen for microalbuminuria in SCA patients and assess the coexistence of frequently documented biochemical changes and anthropometric parameters in sickle cell anaemia patients. This was achieved by determining the presence of microalbuminuria in these patients using Albumin Creatinine Ratio (ACR) in spot urine. A total of 68 asymptomatic sickle cell anaemia patients and 30 non sickle cell anaemia controls were used for the study. These patients were grouped into two: those with normal ACR and others with microalbuminuria using the ACR ≥ 3.0 mg/mmol which approximates 24hr urinary albumin excretion in mg. Results obtained showed a mean significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma urea  in the SCA patients (6.43 ± 0.54 mmol/L) than in the control (3.33 ± 0.16 mmo/L). There was also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in ACR in the SCA patients (4.5± 0.24 mg/mmol) than in the control subjects (2.19 ± 0.10 mg/mmol). Packed cell volume(PCV) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the control subjects (40.65 ± 0.62) than in the SCA patients (23.48 ± 0.94). There was a significant positive correlation between ACR and plasma urea in SCA patients with nephropathy (n = 52; r = 0.58, P < 0.05) and in those without nephropathy (n= 16, r =0.36, P< 0.05).The relationship between ACR and PCV was a significant negative correlation in SCA patients with nephropathy (n = 52; r = -0.39, P < 0.05). Our analysis also indicated that there was a significantly higher waist hip ratio (WHR) and systolic blood pressure in sickle cell anaemia patients (0.89 ± 0.01, 120.39±1.56 mmHg; P < 0.05) than in the control (0.86 ± 0.01, 111.62 ± 1.97). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in the SCA patients (P<0.05). The study also showed that the incidence of nephropathy amongst sickle cell anaemia patients in Southern Nigeria is 76.5%. Microalbuminuria is a common finding in SCA patients and monitoring of ACR will be important in detecting early onset of sickle cell nephropathy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ionizing Radiation and Redox Balance in Diagnostic Radiology Personnel

Vicente Beltrán Campos, Nicolás Padilla Raygoza, Teodoro Córdova Fraga, María de Lourdes García Campos, Silvia del Carmen Delgado Sandoval, Cuauhtémoc Sandoval Salazar, Modesto Antonio Sosa Aquino

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35928

Aim: Determine the influence of ionizing radiation on the redox balance of health personnel.

Introduction: Ionizing radiation has carcinogenic, genetic and immunological effects, among others. Exposure to low radiation doses has been reported to increase the damage induced by high dose exposures. Although it has been used in the therapy of various disorders, its mechanism damages cellular DNA and membrane.

Study Design:  Transversal, comparative, descriptive.

Place and Duration of Study: It is a study based in the community in Radiology Centers, Public and Private, that did accepted to participate, between January 2015 and November 2015.

Methodology: A total of 60 individuals, divided into 2 groups (n = 30), exposed and not exposed to ionizing radiation, all belonging to diagnostic radiology team, have participated in this research study. Blood was drawn, blood plasma was separated for determine the Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG).

Results: No statistically significant differences were found when comparing both groups in any of the two biochemical determinations.

Discussion: Perhaps the influence of environmental conditions, nutrition and other aspects not considered in this study may provide guidelines to clarify the factors underlying the effect of ionizing radiation on the redox balance in diagnostic radiology personnel.

Conclusions: This study, showed that ionizing radiation did not intervene in the redox balance in diagnostic radiology personnel.

Enzymatic dynamics studies are required to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of each of the enzymes involved in the response to oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Gastrointestinal Parasites among Secondary School Students in the Rural and Urban Communities of Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

E. U. Amuta, M. O. Iboyi, S. Ajangem

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35669

Intestinal parasitic infections have always been an important public health problem in the tropics and subtropics particularly in developing countries. A comparative study involving 300 secondary school children of both sexes and ages of 10-24 years in two rural and two urban secondary schools in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State Nigeria was investigated between the months of October, 2016 through March 2017. Saline wet mount and sedimentation techniques were employed for the study. Out the 300 feacal samples examined 110(36.7%) were infected with different intestinal parasites. The parasites and their prevalence rates found were Giardia lamblia (7.3%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.9%), Ascaris lumbricoides (43.6%), Taenia spp (3.6%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.8%), Trichuris trichuira (8.7%), Hookworm (22.8%) respectively.  Ascaris lumbricoides recorded the highest prevalence 43.6% while Enterobius vermicularis had the lowest infection rate 1.8%. Junior Secondary School/Universal Basic Education Apir had the highest prevalence 46.2% and Padopas Harmony Secondary School High level had the lowest prevalence 28.6% (P<0.05). Rural secondary school children had the highest prevalence 42.1% while urban secondary school children had the lowest 30.1% (P<0.05). The prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to sex and age showed no significant difference. However, it was observed that there was a slight decline in prevalence as the age increased. Single parasitism was 30% while poly-parasitism was 6.66 % (p>0.05). The prevalence of parasitic infection in relation to water source showed no significant difference (P>0.05) while occupation of parents showed a significant difference (P<0.01) in the parasitic infection among students. Prevalence based on mode of faecal disposal showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the infection rate. Result showed that there was a direct correlation between students’ hygiene and parasite prevalence rates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Status of Children with Congenital Heart Diseases at a University Teaching Hospital, North-Western Nigeria

K. O. Isezuo, U. M. Waziri, U. M. Sani, B. I. Garba, M. M. Ahmad, A. Adamu, I. J. Hano, M. Omar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35964

Background: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) in children may be associated with varying degrees of undernutrition due to poor intake, impaired nutrient utilization and increased metabolic demands in the presence of heart failure and hypoxia.

Objective: To assess the nutritional status of children with CHD at the Paediatric Cardiology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto.

Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2017. Children aged up to 15 years diagnosed with CHD were assessed using the WHO z-score tables for weight for age (underweight) for those below 10 years, weight for height (wasting) for those below 5 years, height for age (stunting) and body mass index for age (thinness) for all the subjects. Social class and echocardiographic diagnosis were noted. Data was analysed with SPSS version 22.

Results: Of 90 children with CHD, 79 (87.8%) were aged below 5 years, 62 (68.9%) had acyanotic CHD while 28 (31.1%) had cyanotic CHD. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Underweight was detected in 72.9% (62 of 85 below 10 years of age), while 60.8% (48 of 79 below 5 years of age) were wasted. Prevalence of stunting and thinness each was 57.8% in all the subjects. Those with acyanotic CHD had higher proportional prevalence of wasting (p = 0.08) and underweight (p = 0.04). Age < 1 year and female gender were associated with wasting (p = 0.03) while low social class was associated with stunting (p = 0.02).

Conclusion: Prevalence of undernutrition is high amongst children with CHD in UDUTH, Sokoto.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities on Hadejia-Jama’are Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Ecology in Jigawa State, Nigeria

H. O. Osue

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34785

Aim: This study was aimed at identifying factors that influenced the apparent decimation of tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) population, eliminated human and decreased animal African trypanosomosis in Jigawa State, within Sahel-Sudano ecological zone of Nigeria.

Study Design: On the spot physical inspection, interviews and review of data on climate change, socioeconomic, demographic, and environmental variables were collated.

Result: Among the notable factors identified included human population density that resulted in the widespread agricultural crop farming and logging activities particularly within the forest reserves and available outgrowth of natural tree covers across the state. The Glosinna morsitans belt along Hadejia, Jama’are, D. Gaya and Katagun Rivers’ natural swath of riparian forest galleries have virtually been depleted. The area lacked thick continuous vegetation cover conducive for tsetse fly breeding. The key informants interviewed were unanimous that aerial wide insecticide spray with dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) eliminated tsetse flies along with game and aquatic animals. Prevalence of animal trypanosomoses in cattle in the state could be attributed to nomadic or transhumant animal management system. With reported absence of tsetse fly and no case of human African trypanosomoses for over two decades in the state corroborated the negative impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on normalized vegetation index in the extinction of tsetse fly population in the Hadejia-Jama’are primordial sleeping sickness focus.

Conclusion: Extrapolated climate change data analysed over a longer period showed that tsetse suitability index in the area tends to zero due to a combination of high temperature and increased aridity and desertification. These factors in conjunction with past area wide insecticidal control have contributed to absence of tsetse fly and human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness in a  known primordial endemic foci. The documented cases of the disease in livestock have been attributed to the nomadic or transhumant animal management system.