Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Risk Perception and Practices Regarding the Hazards of Unsanitary Solid Waste Disposal among Small-Scale Business Operators in Sokoto, Nigeria

Kehinde J. Awosan, Mansur O. Oche, Edzu U. Yunusa, Mansur O. Raji, Balarabe A. Isah, Kaoje U. Aminu, Ifeanyi J. Nkwoka, Abdulazeez M. Kuna

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36491

Introduction: Unsanitary solid waste disposal practices are very prevalent across sub-Saharan Africa and pose serious threat to the health of the populace. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, risk perception and practices regarding the hazards of unsanitary solid waste disposal among small-scale business operators in Sokoto, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 285 small-scale business operators selected by a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected with a set of pre-tested interviewer- administered, semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 statistical package.

Results: The ages of the respondents ranged from 18 to 65 years (mean = 28.59 ± 7.09). They were predominantly males (80.4%), single (66.0%), and had at least secondary education (91.2%). Less than two-thirds (56.8%) had good knowledge of sanitary solid waste disposal with majority of them having some misconceptions. While most of them (85.3%) had good knowledge of the hazards of unsanitary solid waste disposal, less than two-thirds perceived themselves (57.9%) or their workers and neighbors (58.9%) to be at risk from the hazards. Unsanitary solid waste disposal practices were very prevalent among the respondents (ranging from 22.8 to 57.9%), and the sole predictor was misconception on sanitary solid waste disposal (Odds Ratio = 2.626, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Although the respondents had good knowledge of the hazards of unsanitary solid waste disposal, their risk perception was sub-optimal and unsanitary solid waste disposal practices were very prevalent among them. Small-scale business operators should be targeted for health education intervention to reduce misconceptions and facilitate sanitary solid waste disposal practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Toxicity Profile of Garlic (Allium sativum) on the Liver, Kidney and Heart Using Wistar Rat Model

A. A. Fowotade, A. Fowotade, B. U. Enaibe, G. O. Avwioro

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36282

Background: The medicinal values of Allium sativum has been extensively described in a number of studies. Additionally, it has shown antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of microorganism; bacteria, fungi and parasites. The widespread benefit of garlic for its medicinal properties has resulted in its increased usage thus justifying the need to study the potential toxicity of garlic extracts on vital organs of the body. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity profile of garlic extract in Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Thirty five male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into seven (A-G) of five animals each. Animals in the control group received 1ml of physiological saline intraperitoneally for 38 days. Group A (5 mice) were given 250 mg/kg of garlic extract daily. Group B (5 mice) received 300 mg/kg of garlic extract daily, Group C (5 mice) received 350 mg/kg of garlic extract daily, Group D (5 mice) received 400 mg/kg of garlic extract daily. Group E (5 mice) received 450 mg/kg of garlic extract daily. Group F (5 mice) received 500 mg/kg of garlic extract daily. All administration were done intraperitoneally for 38 days following which blood specimens were collected for biochemical analysis and the animals sacrificed for histological analysis.

Results: The result of the study showed a dose dependent increase in levels of liver enzymes 9AST, ALT and ALP) as well as an increase in serum creatinine levels. Additional findings included dose dependent histologic alterations in hepatic, renal and cardiac functions compared with the control group 6.

Conclusion: This study therefore highlights the safety of garlic at low levels and the potential toxicity of high dose garlic extract to the liver, heart and kidney.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Hand Hygiene among Healthcare Providers in Semi-urban Communities of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Umar M. Ango, Kehinde J. Awosan, Habibullahi Adamu, Shamsudeen Salawu, Musa M. Sani, Asma’u H. Ibrahim

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36599

Introduction: Healthcare providers have been identified as the most common vehicle for transmission of hospital acquired infections (HAIs) from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. Large proportions of the infections acquired in the hospital are attributed to cross contamination and transmission of microbes from hands of healthcare providers (HCPs) to patients. Hand hygiene has been identified as the single most important, simplest and least expensive means of preventing HAIs. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand hygiene among healthcare providers in semi-urban communities of Sokoto State, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 144 healthcare providers selected by a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected with a set of pretested self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 statistical package.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 32.1 ± 7.4 years, and majority of them were aged 20 – 39 years (81.2%), females (59.0%) and married (65.3%). Most of the respondents (71.5%) were community health extension workers (CHEWs) and nurses/midwives. One hundred and thirty-two (91.7%) of the 144 respondents had good knowledge of hand hygiene; but about a third of respondents (31.9%) had the misconception that hand washing should be done before touching patients’ files. Most of the respondents demonstrated positive attitude to hand hygiene. Most of them would attend workshop/training on hand hygiene (95.1%), and would advise their colleagues to do so (94.4%). One hundred and thirty-nine (96.5%) of the 144 respondents reported observing hand hygiene practices; of these, only two-thirds, 97 (69.8%) do so consistently. The main reasons cited for not observing hand hygiene practices consistently were unavailability of soap (88.1%) and irregular water supply (51.0%).

Conclusion: Although, knowledge, attitude and practice of hand hygiene were good among the respondents in this study, unavailability of soap and lack of constant water supply remain major constraints. Government and other stakeholders should provide adequate water, and materials for sanitation and hygiene in the healthcare facilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Epidemic Preparedness of the Tain District in Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana: A Case for the Meningitis Outbreak of 2015/2016

Michael Rockson Adjei, Harry Tagbor, Janet Vanessa Baafi, Timothy Sewornu Letsa

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36156

Introduction: The Tain District experienced an outbreak of meningitis mainly due to Streptococcus pneumoniae that spread to involve other Regions of Ghana except the Central Region. Adequate epidemic preparedness is paramount in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with disease epidemics. However many Local Government Authorities (LGAs) remain ill-prepared due to overwhelming demands of multiple public health challenges amidst meager resources. The main objective was to evaluate the epidemic preparedness of Tain District with reference to the meningitis outbreak of 2015/2016.

Design: The study employed a cross sectional descriptive approach and was carried out from July to September 2016. It involved key informant interviews of three members of the Public Health Emergency Management Committee (PHEMC) using semi-structured questionnaire corroborated by documentary analysis of existing records before and during the outbreak.

Results: The District made adequate preparedness in the areas of logistics, risk communication, surveillance and case management but had gaps with respect to staffing and coordination. The epidemic preparedness was therefore rated ‘inadequate’. The District’s rating may reflect the performance of others within its vicinity where meningitis outbreaks are annual affair but the picture may be worse as one transits to areas less sensitized.

Conclusion: Although the epidemic preparedness of the Tain District was rated inadequate, the case fatality ratio of 10.3% was consistent with comprehensive preparedness and depicts a good and appropriate epidemic response in the midst of multiple challenges. This raises an interesting inference that, the attributes of epidemic preparedness do not carry equal weights. The overwhelming public health challenge posed by disease outbreaks amid meager resources demands prudent management of health resources and Local Government Authorities (LGAs) must critically assess their weaknesses and channel resources appropriately in order to maximize outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tinea Capitis in Patients Attending Zliten Teaching Hospital (North West of Libya)

Tarek Mohamed Arshah, Hamida Al Dwibe, Abdalla Muftah Al-Bakosh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35907

Aims: To determine the frequency of occurrence of tinea capitis in determined population, which were patients, sought medical advice at outpatient dermatology clinic of Zliten Teaching Hospital in period of time from October 2014 to April 2016, and to determine the frequency of different clinical  types of tinea capitis as well as to find out the causative etiological species.

Study Design: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted to analyse the data of patients affected with tinea capitis to find out the most affected age and sex. Furthermore, to discover the distribution of different clinical types and the etiology of tinea capitis.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in outpatient dermatology clinic of Zliten Teaching Hospital in Zliten (North West of Libya) for a period of 19 months, between October 2014 and April 2016.

Methodology: All patients with tinea capitis from different ages were enrolled in this study. Scrapings from infected scalps were examined under high power of microscope using 20% potassium hydroxide mount and cultured for fungal elements. Statistical Microsoft SPSS 20 was used to analyse the data.

Results: The preschool children were the most susceptible age group to develop tinea capitis, which were 36 child (represented 60% of total), while no sex predilection was detected. The grey patch type was the most frequent clinical type seen in 36 (reperesenting 60%) of all patients, followed by black dot and seborrheic type respectively. The Microsporum canis was the most frequent isolated dermatophyte from 16 patients (representing 53.3% of cultures with growth of dermatophytes) followed by Trichophyton rubrum, which was cultured from 7 patients (23.3%).

Conclusion: Preschool children were 36 child (60%) and were the most susceptible age group to develop tinea capitis and no sex predilection was detected. The grey patch was the most frequently seen clinical type. Microsporum canis was the most frequent etiologic agent causing tinea capitis in Zliten area.