Open Access Original Research Article

Educative Intervention in the Oral Hygiene of People with Down Syndrome: A Quasi-experimental Study

Maria Esther Patiño-López, Georgina Olvera-Villanueva, Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36449

Aims: To determine the effect of an educative intervention on the oral hygiene of people with Down Syndrome in two special education schools in Celaya, Gto.

Study Design: Quantitative, correlational, quasi-experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental group of the school of Special Education Mariana and the control group of the Center of Attention Multiple Henri Wallon in Celaya, Gto, between May 2016 and April 2017.

Methodology: We included 30 students (14 men, 16 women; age range 6-21 years) with Down Syndrome. An instrument based on Orem's theory was used to evaluate self-care abilities in oral hygiene and a National Autonomous University of Mexico format of personal control of the dentobacterial plaque. The intervention "Oral hygiene in people with Down Syndrome" was implemented. All was analyzed with Student t for paired means and Student t for independent groups, and P-value.

Results: Self-care skills showed a significant change after the nursing intervention (P = .009), knowledge (P = .02) and skills (P = .003); which had no significant difference were motivations (P = .23) and the percentage of dentobacterial plaque (P = .40).

Conclusion: It is fundamental to apply a nursing intervention to improve the oral hygiene of people with Down Syndrome favoring their capacities for self-care and preventing oral pathologies. But nurses need more training in psychoeducation to improve motivation in people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Renal Function Abnormalities in HIV-infected Children and Adolescents on Antiretroviral Therapy at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Nigeria: A Cross-sectional Study

A. A. Okechukwu, J. O. Lawson, D. U. Itanyi, M. S. Dalili

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36637

Aims: To determine the degree of renal function abnormalities in HIV positive children and adolescents on highly active antiretroviral therapy in our health institution for baseline information and intervention.
Study Design: A cross sectional hospital based study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics (Paediatric Outpatient Special Treatment Clinic), University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, and Zankli Hospital, Abuja.
Methodology: 161 HIV positive children and adolescents (103 males and 58 females, aged 6months to 18 years who were on highly active antiretroviral therapy overtime in our hospital were studied from February to May 2016. Clinical evaluation was carried out which included: blood and urine for urea, electrolytes, creatinine, CD4 cell count, viral load, microalbumin, protein, and heamaturia. Glomerular filtration rate estimate was also calculated with modified Schwartz equation, and kidney sizes assessed with a high-resolution real-time sonographic scanner.
Results: Of 161 patients studied, 137(85.1%) were on 1st line medications, 118 (73.3%) had normal eGFR of > 90 ml/min/1.73  m2, 22(13.7%) had urine albumin creatinine ratio of >30 mg/gm, 18 (11.2%) had haematuria, and 11(6.8%) had proteinuria. High viral load, and low CD4 cell count were the two most important variables in this study with risk factor for microalbuminuria [OR 4.64 (CI 2.671–8.237), p value = 0.0001] for viral load, and [OR 3.69 (CI 1.938–7.774), p values=0.0001 for CD4 cell count. Other variables with risk factors for microalbuminuria are presence of haematuria [OR 2.22 (1.172–10.240), p value= 0.03]; systolic hypertension [OR 2.73 (1.832–6.244), p value= 0.007]; duration on HAART [OR 2.74 (0.630–7.283), p value =0.041], and types of 1st and 2nd line HAART [OR 2.30 (0.542-6.431), p value= 0.037].
Conclusion: Renal function abnormalities are common among HIV positive children and adolescents on highly active antiretroviral therapy without adequate viral suppression. Regular renal function monitoring is to be institutionalized and supported in resource limited settings for earlier diagnosis to forestall development of chronic kidney disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Dermatophytes in Donkeys

Elham Abdelbasit Suleiman, Wisal Gaafar Abdalla, Ahmed Haroon Ahmed, Mohamed Awad Abdelgabar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36425

Background: Dermatophytosis is a fungal infection of skin, hair and nail caused by dermatophytes. The zoonotic nature of the disease requires early detection for implication of treatment.

Aim: The study was conducted to investigate into the cause of skin infection among donkeys in Eldamazine State, Central Sudan.

Study Design: This a case history studies over one year duration.

Methodology: A total of 31 samples of skin scrapings from donkeys with an age ranged 2-20years, from Eldamazie state, Sudan,were collected. Samples were cultured onto Sabouraud’S (SDA) media. The developed colonies were identified by convention method and characterized by molecular techniques using polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton verrucosum were the predominant isolated dermatophytes revealed on investigation. Amplification of the β-tubulin gene, by polymerase chain reaction, and analysis of the amplicon sequence, further confirmed their identification.  The study revealed first report on characterization of these isolates by molecular methods using β- tubulin primers.

Conclusion: The present investigation showed that the integration of different methods and techniques led to identification of useful molecular marker for standardization of taxonomical studies of dermatophyte species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Home Management of Childhood Diarrhoea: A Survey of Mothers in Uyo, Southern Nigeria

Eshiet, Unyime Israel, Olorunsola, Emmanuel O

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35704

Background: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of under–five morbidity and mortality. Diarrhoeal deaths can be prevented by adequate case management of diarrhoeal episodes in children. With majority of cases being treated initially or completely in the home and community, the level of awareness of diarrhoea and simple home management practices among caregivers are key determining factors to reducing diarrhoea morbidity and mortality in children.

Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, perception and practice of home management of diarrhoea of children under five years of age by mothers in Uyo.

Methods: The study was carried out in two selected primary health centres in Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria from December, 2015 to March, 2016. A structured pre–tested questionnaire was used to interview 351 mothers of under five children visiting the selected primary health centres for child immunization within the study period. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Programme for the Social Science (SPSS) version 16. The responses of our respondents were graded into high, average and poor knowledge of childhood diarrhea and its management at home.

Results: Of the 351 mothers interviewed, only 21.3% of the respondents had high level of knowledge of childhood diarrhea and its management at home, while a higher proportion of the respondents (30.4%) had poor knowledge of childhood diarrhoea and its management at home. 17.9% of the respondents reported to have never used Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in managing childhood diarrhea at home. Moreover, 70.37% of the respondents reported that they have never used zinc tablet in the management of childhood diarrhoea at home. A higher knowledge grade was significantly associated with the age, parity and educational level of the mother.

Conclusion: The level of knowledge of childhood diarrhoea and its management at home in Uyo is less than optimal. There is need for increased awareness of childhood diarrhoea and its management at home among mothers in Uyo.

Open Access Review Article

Immunological Responses to Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Intestinal Nematodes Infestation in Children

Lynda A. Allan, Dorcas S. Yole, Fiona N. Mbai

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/33650

Pneumonia is among the leading killer diseases of children under five years in Kenya. The most common bacteriological cause of severe and fatal pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumonia (S. pneumonia). S. pneumoniae is usually carried in the nasopharynx of healthy people, but occasionally leads to invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), such as meningitis, pneumonia, otitis, sinusitis and bacteremia. Annually, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the occurrence of one and a half million of deaths in children under five years, mainly in poor countries. In Kenya, A 10-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV10) introduction into routine immunization schedule has resulted in reduction of the incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal diseases (IPD). However, there is a need to systematically evaluate the confounding factors that limit vaccine efficacy. A common although often overlooked confounding factor in the PCV10 vaccination efficacy is the presence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in humans, particularly in children living in slums. Here the intestinal nematodes are prevalent and their effects result in an immuno-compromised state. We review the possibility of concurrent intestinal nematode infestation altering PCV10-induced responses in children and the need to devise efficacious treatment strategies.