Open Access Original Research Article

Promotion of Health in Self-efficacy, to Reduce Tobacco Consumption in Young Adults

Alicia Aboytes-Alvarez, Georgina Olvera-Villanueva, Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza, Ma. Lourdes Jordan Jinez

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/37546

Aim: The objective was determinate the effect of intervention on the self-efficacy and tobacco intake, to decrease smoking in young adults.

Study Design: Study interventional.

Place and Duration of the Study: Juventino Rosas, Mexican community, between September 2014 and May 2015.

Methodology: sample of 101 smoking young adults between 20 and 30 years. The experimental group had 50 participants and control group 51, and all signed the inform consent. For data collection were used the “Scale for measuring the level of efficacy for smoking cessation” and “Questionnaire for the classification of consumers of cigarette for young”. The intervention was developed in 12 weekly sessions of 50 minutes each, for 3 months, aimed at increasing the self-efficacy through strategies of education, motivation and handling emotions.

Results: There was an association between interventional group and high self-efficacy (P=.01) and the OR = 2.96, IC95%=1.28 to 6.84. There was an association between consumed cigarettes and intervention group (P= .0001); OR=0.2, IC95% =0.08 to 0.46.     

Conclusion: The interventional group improved significantly the level of self-efficacy and reduced consumption of cigarettes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Capillary Leak Syndrome in Hospitalized Cases of Dengue Fever - Is It Really a Marker of Severity?

Arun Agarwal, Vishnu Gupta, Mudit Agarwal

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36883

Background: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and is caused by one of the four dengue viruses of arbovirus family. This study was undertaken to analyze detailed findings in capillary leak syndrome (CLS) among hospitalized dengue fever (DF) cases and its relation to severity of dengue illness. Since the first reported dengue fever outbreak in Madras (now Chennai) in India in 1780, recurrent outbreaks have been reported [1].

However, not many studies from India have addressed to the issue of capillary leak syndrome in these cases. This is the largest case series on 164 cases of CLS in DF.

Materials and Methods: The present study was done at Narayana Multispecialty hospital, Jaipur and had been approved by the institute ethical committee. It is a four year retrospective observational study comprising of 264 indoor patients of confirmed DF out of which 164 cases had CLS and 100 cases were without CLS. The presenting symptoms, dengue NS1 antigen and antibody tests, co-infection, co-morbidities, laboratory investigation, mortality, duration of hospital stay were recorded, tabulated and analyzed.

Results: Besides fever, hepato-splenomegaly, chills, vomiting, abdominal pain, body-ache, and bleeding manifestations, isolated gall bladder (GB) wall edema was present in 26 (15.9%) cases, ascites in 8 (4.9%) cases, and pleural effusion in 11 (6.7%) cases respectively. Pleural effusion was right sided in 8 (4.9%) cases, bilateral in 3 (1.8%) cases and only left sided in none of the cases. Both ascites and pleural effusion was present in 9 (5.5%) cases and triad of ascites, GB wall edema and pleural effusion was seen in 76 (46.3%) cases respectively. None of the case had pericardial effusion.

Conclusion: We conclude that CLS is as common in primary as in secondary dengue fever patients and that it probably appears to be a universal finding at microscopic level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio – economic Factors Influencing Utilization of Healthcare Services in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria

R. A. Oladigbolu, M. O. Oche, A. U. Kaoje, G. J. Gana

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35282

The objective of equity in health care system is “equal access for equal needs” and there should be no barriers to healthcare utilization. The objective of the study was to assess the socio – economic factors influencing utilization of healthcare services in Sokoto, Northern Nigeria. A descriptive cross – sectional study among 360 randomly selected (using multi – stage sampling technique) household heads in Sokoto, Nigeria was conducted in August 2015. Informed consent was obtained and information was collected using a pre – tested semi – structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was cleaned, manually entered and analysed using SPSS statistics version 22. Most of the households 221 (61.4%) belonged to upper social class (class I – III) and 139 (38.6%) belonged to lower social class (class IV – V). Majority of the households 337 (93.6%) paid for their healthcare through user – fees out – of – pocket payment (OOPP). About half of those that were ill suffered from Malaria and PMDs were the most visited for healthcare. Social class, user – fees and educational status were the three predictors of utilization of healthcare services at the health facilities as households in the lower social class were 2 times the odds to find it difficult in paying for the services utilized at the health facilities (OR = 2.20, p = 0.003, 95% CI [1.31 – 3.77]). Similarly, households that paid for healthcare with user – fees were 8 times the odds to find it difficult in paying for the services utilized at the health facility (OR = 8.02, p = 0.045, 95% CI [1.05 – 61.17]) and households with informal education were 2 times the odds to find it difficult in paying for the services utilized at the health facility (OR = 2.23, p = 0.008, 95% CI [1.24 – 4.16]). Free healthcare services, increased coverage of pre – payment options (NHIS, CBHIS), regulations of PMDs and creation of more job opportunities to address unemployment thereby upholding the social class of the citizens of Nigeria were suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli in Piglets of North East Region of India

Hosterson Kylla, Tapan Kumar Dutta, Lallianpuii Kawlni

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/37109

Background: Shiga-toxigenic E. coli also known as verotoxin–producing E. coli is one of the diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains which also include its well-known subgroup enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. It is increasingly recognized as the cause of severe gastrointestinal and systemic diseases, such as haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

Materials and Methods: The present research study was conducted during 2013-15 to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli associated with gastroenteritis of piglets in organized and unorganized farms of North East Region of India. A total of 457 faecal samples were collected from unweaned piglets in organized and unorganized farms of North East States of India. All the isolates were screened by multiplex PCR assay for presence of putative virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and hlyA), serotyped and further characterized for resistance against 15 selected antimicrobial drugs.

Results: Of the 1286 E. coli isolates screened by multiplex PCR, a total of 30 isolates (2.33%) were recorded as STEC and were isolated from diarrhoeic piglets only. Of the 30 STEC, 28 isolates were positive for stx2 gene and 2 isolates possessed hlyA gene. Nineteen STEC (2.9%) were recovered from organized farms and 11 (1.74%) from unorganized farms, further, 5 STEC isolates (1.51%) were isolated from local breed and 25 (2.61%) from cross breed piglets. The 30 STEC isolates belonged to 9 different serogroups, 4 isolates (13.33%) were untypable and 5 isolates (16.66%) were rough strains. Serogroups, O1, O8, O156 were found to be the most prevalent serotype (10.0%). All the isolates showed resistance to at least three antimicrobial agents. None of the isolates were found resistance against imipenem, whereas the highest resistance was observed against cefalexin (80.0%) and amoxycillin (76.66%).

Open Access Original Research Article

SDS-PAGE and Densitometric Analysis of Myofibrillary Proteins: Actin and Myosin in Skeletal Muscle of Fluoride Intoxicated Rats

A. Shashi, Nidhi Rana

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36186

Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contractile proteins; Actin and Myosin in the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to three different concentrations of fluoride during 40 days of fluoride toxicity. Changes in muscle proteins of control and test rats have been examined using Sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Densitometric analysis. The percentage decrease in both Actin and Myosin proteins was observed for all treated groups.

Study Design: 8 weeks old, Wistar albino rats of both sexes were used for the experiments. The rats were divided into three groups (Group I, Group II and Group III) of six animals each. The first group served as control group and was administered 1 ml deionized water /kg bw/ day. Sodium fluoride was given to Group II and Group III at the dose rate of 300 mg NaF/ kg bw/day and 600 mg NaF / kg bw /day orally for 40 days. Animals were housed in polypropylene cages lined with husk and kept in light/dark condition (12h light/ 12 h dark) .The animals had free access to water and were supplied with standard pellet diet.

Methodology: At the end of the experimental period, rats were fasted overnight and anaesthetized  using ether anaesthesia. Skeletal muscle tissue were dissected out in ice-cold saline. The tissues were weighed and 10% tissue homogenate was prepared with the 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5 using a ultrasonic homogenizer. After centrifugation at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes, the clear supernatant was used for the analysis of contractile proteins.

Results: SDS-PAGE and Densitometric analysis revealed that intensities of Actin and Myosin protein bands were reduced due to fluoride intoxication. The intensity of Myosin in Control group was found to be 2.57, 2.00 in Group II and 0.41 in Group III. The intensity of Actin in Control group was 3.041, 2.11 in Group II and 0.30 in Group III. The 600 mg NaF fluoride treated group exhibited more prominent decrease that the intensity of Myosin was decreased to 0.41 and Actin was decreased to 0.30. In the present study the percentage decrease of both Actin and Myosin proteins showed that Actin was 46% decreased in 300 ppm group and 58% decreased in 600 ppm group. Similarly, Myosin was 41% decreased in 300 ppm group and 87% decreased in 600 ppm group.

Conclusion: The results of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and densitometric analysis demonstrated that fluoride disturbed the contractile pattern of skeletal muscle proteins. The results suggested that skeletal muscle damage, induced by fluoride, is probably due to its proteolytic action on myofibrils, which are responsible for the maintainence of the cellular architecture.