Open Access Short Communication

STAT 3 Mutations, Giardia Infection and the IL-17 Pathway

Amrita Dosanjh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/37426

Parasitic infections may be common in endemic areas. Giardia spp. infections are widespread and not endemic to one region. The combined presence of parasitic infections and high serum immunoglobulin level E (IgE) levels, can be found in isolation or as a clinical manifestation of certain immune defects.

The Hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES) as a group of distinct primary immune disorders should be considered in the differential and treatment of parasitic disease. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of recognizing underlying immune defects in the clinical setting of parasitic infection, including HIES.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cefoxitin Resistant Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from the Environment of a Tertiary Health Institution

C. F. Umego, C. I. Mboto, U. O. Edet, U. E. George, E. N. Mbim, S. Ayiabola

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/34544

Staphylococcus aureus has a notable ability to acquire resistance to methicillin and other antibiotics, and represents a growing public health challenge globally. This study was aimed at evaluating the cefoxitin resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the University of Calabar Medical Centre, Calabar. A total of 50 swab specimens were collected from the hospital environment of the University of Calabar Medical Centre and analyzed following standard microbiological techniques. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using commonly used antibiotics. A total of 20 (40%) S. aureus strains were isolated and exhibited 80% resistance against cefoxitin, 75% against ampiclox and 65% against amoxyl, confirming their ability to secrete β -lactamases against β- lactam agents.  Furthermore, S. aureus strains also exhibited varying degrees of resistance to non β-lactam antibiotics including streptomycin (50%) and ciprofloxacin (60%). Considerable susceptibility was however observed with other antibiotics including levofloxacin (75%) and gentamycin (70%), suggesting that these drugs could be employed as combination therapy in the management of CRSA- related infections. This study revealed a high level of resistance of S. aureus to cefoxitin. In addition, isolates also exhibited resistance to routinely used antibiotics and makes need for urgent review of antibiotics, hospital sanitation and disinfection policies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis B Serological Markers and Risk Factors among Pregnant Women and Prospective Blood Donors in Southwestern Nigeria

Olufisayo A. Adesina, Margaret O. Japhet

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/37581

Background: Hepatitis B control, especially among pregnant women and prospective blood donors, in the developing world is still a disease that must be given attention considering its mortality and morbidity rates.

Methods: This study was conducted among 153 subjects including pregnant women and prospective blood donors using appropriate hepatitis B serological marker ELISA kits (WANTAI, China) for each marker.

Results: Among the subjects screened, 38 had at least one of the markers. Among those that showed no detectable HBsAg were 2 prospective blood donors with HBeAg and another 6 prospective blood donors and 2 pregnant women with HBcAb-IgM detected in them all indicating an ongoing infection and replication of hepatitis B virus. Sexual activities were found to be of statistical significance in the study.

Conclusion: It is imperative to give more attention to control of HBV spread through more sex education and administration of vaccination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Onychomadesis Following the Outbreak of Hand Foot Mouth Disease in Children: A Study from North India

Shazia Jeelani, Audil Mohmad Lanker, Nasir Jeelani

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35569

Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral disease that usually inflicts children. It usually resolves without major complications in about 1-3 weeks, however; there are various reports of onychomadesis occurring as a late complication of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD).

Aim: To study onychomadesis in children, following HFMD outbreak in Kashmir valley and review the available literature about same.

Methods: Children presenting with onychomadesis between June 2015 to August 2015 were studied in this prospective study. The parents were questioned regarding the history of any preceding acral skin and/or oral vesicular rash preceding the nail changes. Children were clinically examined, and their pediatric and dermatological records were studied to confirm precedent HFMD. Only those cases with the preceding history or documentation of onychomadesis were included in the study.

Results: Seventeen children with onychomadesis in 72 nails were included in the study. The mean number of affected nails was 4.23. Fingernails were more often involved (37/70). Preceding diagnosis of HFMD was clinically confirmed in all the cases. The mean time from HFMD diagnosis to onychomadesis development was 5.7 weeks (range: 3-10 weeks, SD: 1.89).

Conclusion: Our data indicate that onychomadesis outbreak in the Kashmir valley during summer 2015 was highly related to the epidemic of HFMD. Our study reinforces existing evidence for the association between onychomadesis and HFMD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sero-prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle and Its Associated Risk Factors in North East India (Meghalaya)

Hosterson Kylla, Pynhunlang Passah, Measuredian Kharchandy, Lahun R. Dkhar, Iadarilin Warjri, Laureata Dkhar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/37080

Aim: A cross-sectional sero-prevalence study was conducted from July 2008 to December 2014 in Meghalaya (India) to determine prevalence of bovine brucellosis and also for assessing the risk factors associated with the disease in cattle.

Materials and Methods: In the present study, serum samples were collected from a 1248 animals aged 1-12 years and were screened for brucella antibodies using RBPT and Indirect ELISA. The samples were collected from male and female cattle, which were reared in organized farms and smaller private holdings.

Results: Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) revealed 2.8% serum positivity whereas 2.24% were detected positive by indirect ELISA. Prevalence was higher in female (2.16%) compared to male (0.08%) and cattle of age group 2-7 years old were much susceptible than others. Higher prevalent were detected from organized farms maintaining high number of animals (3.3%) than smaller private holdings (1.49%). Cattle with history of abortion also indicate higher and significant association with sero-positivity found in such sampling animals.

Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent in the hilly state of Meghalaya (India).Therefore the study give an insight into the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the state with potential risk factors for transmission of disease.