Open Access Letter to the Editor

Actinomyces-like Organisms on Intrauterine Devices from Asymptomatic Users

Alexandro Bonifaz, Rafael Buitrón-García, Ana Ramírez-Galván, Andrés Tirado-Sánchez

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/37416

The “Type of Article” of this paper is “Letter to the Editor”. This paper discuses about: “Actinomyces-like Organisms on Intrauterine Devices from Asymptomatic Users”. No formal abstract is available. Readers are requested to read the full article.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection among Female Internally Displaced Persons in Maiduguri, Nigeria

H. S. Hamafyelto, I. E. Ikeh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36084

This study evaluated the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infections among females internally displaced persons (IDP) in Maiduguri, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 200 women aged 11 to 45 years, from the four internally displaced persons camps conducted between July to November 2016. An informed consent of every woman was obtained before a sample of the high vaginal swab was carefully and aseptically collected using a well-labeled, sterile, non-abrasive high vaginal swab stick and was immediate inoculated into OXOID Trichomonas medium and incubated for 24 to 72 hours. Results show that Dalori IDP camp had the highest 26.0% and least in National Youth Service Corp 14.0% infection rates. It was found that this parasite is predominantly high in age groups 25 - 30 years with 25% prevalence, while no infection was recorded among women greater than 40 years. We observed high prevalence among married women with 21.6%. Non-formal educated women had the highest infection of 22.3%, while tertiary educated women had only 1.0%. Occupational related prevalence showed that traders were the most infected with 25.0%  while students had the lowest infection rate of 7.1%. The study observed the highest T. vaginalis infection among non-pregnant women with 20.8%. It was concluded that there is 20.5% high prevalence of T. vaginalis infection among female internally displaced persons in Maiduguri and as such should be controlled with extensive public health education, adequate treatment of both spouses, implementation of effective screening programmes, sex education, free treatment, and awareness creation to the public, on health implication of T. vaginalis infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short Term Outcome of Malaria at Rwanda Level 2 Hospital Bria in Central African Republic: A Cross-Sectional Study

Joël Bizimanasharale Bikoroti, John Byimana, Augustin Ndatinya, Justin Bayisenga, John Muganda Rwibasira, Alphonse Gasangwa, Emmanuel Ntirenganya, Sadock Rumenge

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36787

Background: Malaria has been recognized as a disease affecting peacekeeping forces serving in malaria endemic countries. We wanted to determine the short term outcome of malaria at Rwanda Level 2 hospital.

Methods: Malaria cases were prospectively reviewed and followed at Rwanda Level 2 hospital Bria in Central African Republic from 4th April to 14th July 2017. Clinical, laboratory, treatment and short outcome findings were analyzed.

Results: Patients (102 in subjects) with positive rapid diagnostic test and blood smear were reviewed, prevalence rate was 14.97%, mean age of 37.77±8.39 years and male presented with 91.20%, male sex ratio of 10:1. Headaches, body weakness, joint aches, muscle aches, chills and fever presented respectively 98%, 89.20%. 84.30%, 81.40%, 61.80% and 49%. Digestive symptoms were presente anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort and vomiting 41.20%, 37.20%, 31.40% and 8.80% respectively. Plasmodium falciparum was found in 98%, associated with vivax in 1% and isolated vivax in 1%. High parasitemia of 1 to 10 parasites per thick field and more was found in 8.80%. Malaria recurrence rate was 13.70% with a duration period mean of 38.92 days (range 20-82 days). 35.71% had recurrent within thirty days. 82.40% of patients received tablets Artemether-lumefanthrine. This High parasitemia was associated respectively with nausea p=0.013, OR=5.9, 95% (1.3 - 26.93) and anorexia p=0.003 OR=11.43, 95% (1.43-87.99). Clinical and laboratory findings post treatment showed a strong statistical association.

Conclusion: Malaria is prevalent at Bria; multitudes of symptoms and sign have been documented. Post treatment clinical and laboratory findings showed efficacy of treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Malaria Infection among Patients Attending the Health Centre of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

E. T. Obimakinde, I. A. Simon-Oke

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/35340

Aim: This study determined the prevalence of malaria among patients having malaria symptoms that reported for malaria test at the Health Centre of the Federal University of Technology, Akure.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in the Health Centre of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria between January to December 2015.

Methodology: Prior the commencement of the research work, approval was given by the Health Research Ethics Committee (HREC) of the University. A total of 2,616 patients were examined, with the ages of patients ranging from 4 years to 65 years. Demographic information such as sex, age, status (Student and Staff) and date of collection of each patient whose blood sample was collected were recorded. Malaria parasite screening was done using the thick blood film microscopy technique with Giemsa stain while Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data obtained from the study.

Results: The results showed that the highest prevalence of 82 (91.1%) was recorded among the children aged 1-10, followed by age 21-30 having the prevalence of 926 (79.7%) while the lowest prevalence of 21 (56.8%) was recorded among the age group above 60 years. Also, high prevalence of 79.7% was recorded during wet season (March to October), while a lower prevalence of 75.4% was recorded during dry season (November to February) with significant difference at P = 0.001.

Conclusion: The result showed that there was high prevalence of malaria infection throughout the year among the patients. There is the need for constant check on all possible predisposition factors like breeding site of the mosquito vector. This could be achieved through public enlightenment on effective malaria control programs such as the use of insecticide treated nets, environmental management and sanitation and perfect engineering works.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vector Competence of Laboratory-reared Anopheles stephensi for Plasmodium vivax-infected Blood from Pakistani Patients

Shahid Waseem, Kashif Ullah, Anam Fatima, Sohaib Ali Hassan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/38190

Malaria is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Plasmodium vivax is supposed to contribute over 80% of total malaria cases in Pakistan. However, data on transmission pattern is inconsistent and scanty in Pakistan.

Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the vector competence based on sporozoite rate rather than oocyst rate.

Study Design: Laboratory reared female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium vivax served a study model.

Methodology: Anopheles stephensi vectors were reared in the laboratory and fed on Plasmodium vivax infected blood obtained from malaria patients. Progression of parasite was determined by light or fluorescent microscopic examination of midgut or salivary gland of infected mosquitoes.

Results: Oocyst and sporozoite rates were found to be 64% and 54%, respectively, which confirmed the vector competence of female mosquitoes. Blood feeding contributed the longer survival of the vector irrespective of the presence or absence of Plasmodium vivax.

Conclusions: It is concluded that laboratory reared female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes support the development of Plasmodium vivax. Blood-fed mosquitoes showed considerable competence for malaria parasite which is dependent on sporozoite rate rather than oocyst rate. The current study exhibited laboratory reared female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes as a potential source of parasite transmission.