Open Access Original Research Article

Male Pattern Infertility in a Referral Hospital, Southern Nigeria

Oboro Ibinabo Laura, Wariso Kennedy Tamunoimiegbam, Lawson Stephenson Danagogo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/36788

Aim: To evaluate the pattern of seminal fluid parameters (sperm concentration, motility and morphology) observed on seminal fluid analysis.

Study Design: A Retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria over a five year period between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2015.

Methodology: Retrospective review of seminal fluid analysis. Data collated include sperm concentration, motility and morphology as well as age. No contact with patients was necessary. Seminal fluid analysis was carried out using 2010 WHO recommended criteria. Data was presented using measures of central tendency and analysed using the epi info v7 software at a 95% confidence interval and P value < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: A total of 223 semen samples analysed during the period under review. 39% (87) and 1.8% (4) had oligozoospermia and azoospermia respectively, 87.4% (195) had varying degrees of morphologic abnormality of their sperm cells and 40.8% (91) had ≤40% progressive motility. 85.7% (78) men who had ≤40% motility also had structural abnormalities of their spermatozoa, implying poor seminal fluid quality

Conclusion: Male factor infertility may contribute significantly to the number of infertile couples diagnosed in Southern Nigeria. The impact on younger men is huge. We therefore encourage more studies to better evaluate associated/ causative factors including the impact of environmental factors (in the light of recent changes in the ecosystem) with a view to reducing its incidence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Zliten, a New Focus in North West of Libya

Tarek Mohamed Arshah, Hamida Al Dwibe, Nawal Sulayman Alabyadh, Ayiman Abdusalam Mohamed, Amna Alrtail, Abdulnaser Abdulsalam Sefrita

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/37808

Aims: This study was done to evaluate the epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the patients who were presented to dermatology clinic of main referral hospital in Zliten, and to discover its distribution in relation to age, sex, season, and residency.

Study Design: In this case series study. The data of  Studied patients were recorded and analysed to discover the incidence of CL, as well as the distribution of CL according to age, sex, residency, season, and affected body sites.

Place and Duration of Study: All patients with CL, who were referred or presented to dermatology outpatient clinic of Zliten Teaching Hospital, were enrolled. The majority of patients came from Zliten and its Suburban and the minority from neighboring cities. The study was conducted over more than a six-year period from November 2010 till December 2016.

Methodology: All referred or presented patients with suspected CL, were examined clinically, and slit skin smear and / or Skin biopsy for microscopic confirmation were performed whenever the diagnosis was suspicious. The information about age, gender, address of patient, date of presentation, and site of lesions on the body were collected and analysed with use of statistical Microsoft SPSS 20.

Results: Out of all referred patients, 420 patients were found to have CL. Males were 311(represented 74%) and females were 109 (represented 26%) with male to female ratio 3:1. The ages of patients ranged from 2 years to 80 years, and most of the infections occured in the age group 20-29 years, which were 118 patient (28.1%). Annual incidence was increased markedly in 2016, and the disease was mainly observed in the winter.

Conclusion: Our study showed marked increase of reported cases of CL in 2016 especially in East area of Zliten compared to previous years. Therefore, further studies are required to recognize the vector, parasite species and the animal reservoir, which would enable national and local health authorities to put effective control programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Bednet Ownership and Usage of Insecticide Treated Bednet (ITN) among Pregnant Women in Nigeria (Review of 2003 and 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey [NDHS]

Olajide A. Adekunle, David M. Dairo, Omowumi O. Okedare

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/37809

Introduction: Malaria in pregnancy imposes great burden on the country in terms of maternal morbidity, anaemia and low birth weights for children. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends insecticide-treated nets (ITN) usage for pregnant women to reduce the burden of malaria in pregnancy. There have been various interventions put in place by the government to make ITN available thereby ensuring usage but there has never been a documentation to describe the effectiveness of these strategies. This study reviewed the pattern of bed net ownership and ITN usage among pregnant women.

Methodology: This study was a comparative cross-sectional population based study in which a secondary data review and analyses of 2003 and 2008 national demographic and health survey (NDHS) data were done. Frequencies, charts and chi square test using Stat calc of Epi-Info statistical software were used to investigate the pattern of trend of ITN usage.

Results: Pregnant women who owned bed net increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 12.9% in 2003 to 22.9% in 2008. Pregnant women who slept under ITN also increased significantly from 1.2% in 2003 to 5.0% in 2008. There was a significant increase in the ownership of bed net and usage of ITN over the years in all the categories of residence, region, wealth index, education, literacy, partner’s education, work status, marital status and religion.

Conclusion: This study found out that despite the fact that ITN was introduced widely across Nigeria, bed net ownership and ITN usage were still low and hereby calls for intensified campaign on awareness of practicing usage of ITN.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meningococcal Meningitis Outbreak (2009) among Children in Maiduguri North-Eastern Nigeria: Epidemiology and Determinants of Outcome

Pius, Simon, Ibrahim, Halima Abubakar, Akuhwa, Randolph Tartenger, Alhaji, Mohammed Arab, Ikunaiye, Nasiru Yakubu, Mava, Yakubu, Denue, Ballah Akawu, Bello, Mustapha

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/38025

Introduction: Large scale epidemic meningococcal meningitis outbreaks had occurred in the African meningitis belt every 5-12 years for the past century. Children are at high risk yet little attention had been directed toward them.

Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study among all the children with clinical suspicion or diagnosis of cerebrospinal meningitis during the meningococcal meningitis outbreak from January to December 2009.

Results: One hundred and seventeen children were confirmed with meningococcal meningitis with incidence of 10.1%. The results of the unadjusted regression analyses, headache (p=0.046, OR 2.895 95% CI 1.019 – 8.229), duration of symptoms before first antibiotic (p=0.035, OR 3.289 95% CI 1.090 –9.920), dehydration (p=0.002, OR 5.225 95% CI 1.885 – 15.391) and type of antibiotic combination; crystalline penicillin and chloramphenicol (p=0.009, OR 4.043 95% CI 1.426 – 11.463) the only factors that correlate significantly with the death rate. However multivariate (adjusted) logistic regression using only factors with p < 0.05 in univariate analysis, only the type of antibiotic combination: Crystalline penicillin/Chloramphenicol and Ceftriaxone/Gentamicin (p=0.030, OR 5.782, 95% CI 1.191 – 28.080) that showed independent association with mortality rate in meningococcal meningitis among children.

Conclusion: Children remained the large population affected with high morbidity and mortality especially in the African meningitis belt. The factors contributing to such effect includes lack of immunization, poor recognition of the disease and lack of policy directed at children wellbeing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Pulmonary Mycoses among HIV Infected Clients Attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy Clinic at Kisoro District Hospital, Western Uganda

Justus Mucunguzi, Bashir Mwambi, Dahir Ali Hersi, Shallon Bamanya, Christine Atuhairwe, Ivan Mugisha Taremwa

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/38283

Aim: For determining the prevalence of pulmonary mycosis among HIV infected clients attending anti-retroviral therapy clinic at Kisoro district Hospital in Western Uganda.

Study Design: This was a cross- sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This was conducted in the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic at Kisoro District Hospital (KDH) during the months of March to July, 2016.

Methodology: We collected sputum samples from HIV sero positive clients that were enrolled in the ISS clinic. We did microscopic examination using Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining technique and sputum culture on sabroid dextrose agar (SDA), and identified to isolate fungal pathogens. Further, we obtained about 4.0 milliliters of ethylene-di-amine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) blood that was used to assay CD4+ cell counts. Data was analyzed, and presented as proportions.

Results: Of the 252 participants, 136 (53.97%) were females. The mean and median age was 38.94 (SD±12.64) and 38 years, respectively. The prevalence of pulmonary mycosis was 34/252 (13.49%; 95% CI=9.53-18.34), of which 12(35%; 95% CI=19.75-53.51) were molds and 22 (64.71%; 95% CI=46.49-80.25) were yeasts. The species isolated and their proportions were: Candida albicans (10/252, 3.97%), other Candida species (7/25, 2.78%), Aspergillus species (6/252, 2.38%), Penicillium species (5/252, 1.98%), Cryptococcus species (4/252, 1.59%), Basidiomycetes (1/252, 0.40%) and Acremonium species (1/252, 0.40%). 

Conclusion: From this study, we report a high prevalence of pulmonary mycosis that is associated with deteriorating immunological state. In addition, it presents with signs and symptoms aping Mycobacterium tuberculosis.