Open Access Case Study

Expanded Dengue Syndrome - A Lesson Learnt

Arun Agarwal, Prashant Singh, Aakanksha Agarwal, Gopesh Tiwari

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/39181

Dengue virus (DV) is omnipresent, globally distributed flavivirus and is primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, found through-out the tropical and subtropical regions of over 100 countries. Unusual manifestations of Dengue fever (DF) with severe organ involvement such as liver, kidneys, brain or heart associated with dengue infection have been increasingly reported in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and also in dengue patients who do not have evidence of plasma leakage. Expanded dengue syndrome is a new term added into World Health Organization (WHO) classification system to incorporate this wide spectrum of unusual manifestations. We report a case of tropical fever that presented as suspected brain stroke with seizures and later diagnosed to have dengue fever-expanded dengue syndrome. The presentation, diagnostic dilemma and management are discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Malaria and Helminth Infection in Pregnancy at Booking and Their Relationship to Anaemia at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Southern Nigeria

E. W. Nnah, T. Kasso

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/38278

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and helminth infection in pregnancy and their relationship with anaemia at booking at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 192 pregnant women who booked for antenatal care at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between August 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016. Socio-demographic data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and thick and thin blood films made, stained and examined for malaria parasites under a light microscope using x100 objective lens with oil immersion. Wet mount was prepared from the stool specimen using direct smear method with normal saline and iodine preparation, and the concentration procedure using formol/ether for the identification of ova of helminths. Data obtained was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. The results are presented in frequency tables and figures.

Results: The prevalence of malaria, helminth, and their co-infection at booking were 24.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% respectively while the prevalence of anaemia at booking was 16.7%. Malaria and helminth co-infection accounted for 3.1% of the study population with anaemia while 75% of those with anaemia had malaria infection alone. The helminth infection identified in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides. There was a statistically significant relationship between malaria and helminth co-infection, and the area of residence (p= 0.036).

Conclusion: The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection was very low and had no statistically significant relationship with anaemia. Malaria infection was mainly associated with anaemia at booking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Associated Signs and Symptoms of Confirmed Influenza Infections in Ghana

Michael Adjabeng, Evelyn Korkor Ansah, Michael Ntiri, Badu Sarkodie, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Emmanuel Dzotsi, Sally-Ann Ohene, Joseph Humphrey Kofi Bonney, William Ampofo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/38865

Aims: Acute respiratory tract infections are among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and rank second among the top causes of health facility attendance in Ghana. A well-positioned case detection system can efficiently identify respiratory illnesses and detect influenza outbreaks early. This study determined clinical signs and symptoms most predictive of confirmed influenza infection among Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) patients.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted.

Place and Duration of Study: A data repository of case-based records from the regional sentinel sites available at the Disease Surveillance Department of the Ghana Health Service for the period of January to December 2011 was used as secondary data. The dataset was first accessed in October 2016.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,089 anonymized case-based records. The associations between the combinations of fever and cough together with other signs and symptoms of an influenza positive infection were explored. Frequencies, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and odds ratio were computed using Epi Info 7.0 (CDC, Atlanta, GA).

Results: The median age was 22 years (IQR: 6.5 to 37 years). Twenty-one percent were children under 5 years. Females formed 1,190 (57%) of the total patients studied. Fever and cough together with a sore throat had the highest significant association (ORa: 1.52; 95%CI: 1.15 - 2.02) with a positive influenza laboratory results in the adjusted analysis.

Conclusion: The case definition for Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) was loosely applied considering the variation between the frequencies of patients with fever or a cough. Since an ILI case definition encourages the inclusion of other respiratory signs, observations from this study suggest the inclusion of a sore throat, together with fever and cough as the best predictor of an influenza infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sexual Health Communication Strategies and HIV/AIDS Awareness among Students in Teachers’ Colleges in Central Uganda

Abdul Doka, Joseph Oonyu, Josephine Esaete

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/38084

Background: There are about 34 million Ugandans (UBOS 2016) of which 7% adults are living with HIV/AIDS. Although the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among the youth is estimated at 3.7% relatively lower than in adults, about 60% of the Ugandans are youth hence more than 50% of Uganda’s total population is at risk of HIV/AIDS infection. Therefore creating awareness among the youth on HIV/AIDS is the key to reducing its spread. Central to awareness creation is ensuring that knowledge on HIV/AIDS is passed through appropriate sexual health communication strategies.

Methods of awareness are implemented to the built concept in the prevention of AIDS, with short street dramas, songs and distributing pamphlets at various organizations etc. Teachers, the counsellers of the society have also taken initiative in generating AIDS-related awareness. Despite the existence of provisions for communicating HIV/AIDS, still, there is limited literature found on sexual health communication strategies used by PTCs and awareness of HIV/AIDS among students, teachers, and trainees in Uganda. Therefore this Cross-sectional survey study was performed at Primary teachers colleges in central Uganda in 2014 with aim of establishing the relationship between three sexual health communication strategies namely: guidance and counseling, school-based talk shows on stigma and discrimination of children infected or affected by HIV/AIDS and integration of HIV/AIDS in teaching and awareness. For the study 216 students, teachers, trainees were selected along with 6 principals and 12 tutors. The semi-structured questionnaire was completed. In conclusion, it has been found that all of them are well aware regarding the AIDS preventive measures but fail to conceptualize regarding transmitting methods and symptoms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aspects of Climatic and Socioeconomic Parameters and Malaria Prevalence; Evidence from Nigeria

Yemi Adewoyin, Aina Thompson Adeboyejo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/38942

Aim: Against the background that most disease eradication drives dwell more on controlling the proximal causes of diseases and the development of innovative measures for diseases treatment, this study investigates the impact of climatic parameters and the population’s socioeconomic conditions on disease prevalence on the premise that these conditions promote the preponderance of the proximal causes.

Study Design: The study employed a quantitative research design of the correlational type.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2015 – 2016.

Methods: The study assesses the temporal patterns and contributions of rainfall and temperature and four socioeconomic indices on malaria prevalence in Nigeria between 1985 and 2014 using Standard Deviation, Kurtosis, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression statistical techniques.

Results: The results show a minimal but steady increase in malaria prevalence while changes in the climatic parameters and socioeconomic conditions in the period reviewed accounted for 78.6% of the variations in malaria prevalence (R2 = .786, P < .001). The regression equation was used to project the incidence of malaria in the study area from 310 cases per 1,000 Population in 2016 to 366 cases per 1,000 Population in 2050.

Conclusion: The paper recommends that to achieve noticeable improvements in malaria eradication, greater attention should be paid to improving the socioeconomic conditions of the population as these have implications for their susceptibility to ill health and also affect their adaptation to climate change.