Open Access Case Report

Multiorgan Failure Associated with Epstein-Barr Viremia-An Elusive Diagnosis: A Case Series

Arun Agarwal, Mudit Agarwal, Anudeep Saxena, Sheel Bhadra Jain

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/39649

Fulminant Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), also known as (herpes simplex virus-4(HSV-4) induced multiple organ failure is rarely reported and should be considered a potential diagnosis in patients with multiple organ failure. From a clinical perspective, it should be remembered that fulminant herpes simplex Virus (HSV) infection may masquerade as “routine” bacterial severe sepsis/septic shock. This potentially fatal condition should be diagnosed early and treated. Here we describe three cases who were admitted with multi organ dysfunction and two of them finally deceasing in a septic shock with multi organ failure. No bacterial or fungal infection could be detected in one of these cases and were adequately treated in other two cases. The presence of EBV (HSV-4) was detected in plasma confirming EBV viremia. The presentation, clinical course and management are discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Socio Demographic and Institutional Factors on Utilization of Antenatal Care Services among Pregnant Women in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria

Muhammad Ibrahim Bande, Muhammad Chutiyami, Usman Shehu, Mubarak Salisu Garba

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/39726

Pregnancy-related morbidities and mortalities remain a major challenge in developing countries like Nigeria where most of them were associated with poor/underutilization of antenatal care (ANC) services. This study, therefore, aims to examine the effect of socio-demographic and institutional factors on the utilization of antenatal care services among pregnant women in Damaturu, Yobe state, Nigeria. A descriptive study was carried out among 204 women (15-49 years) who have given birth within the last 12 months or are pregnant at the time of the study. Purposive sampling was used, and data were collected using structured questionnaire/interview guide. To establish the effect of socio-demographic and institutional factors on the utilization of ANC services, bivariate analysis using Pearson’s chi-square test was conducted. The results showed that majority of the respondents are housewives between the ages of 30-34 years. Of these, only 49% of the women received the minimum required ANC of four visits. In the correlations analysis using chi-square test, age (P<0.001), marital status (P<0.001), level of education (P<0.001), level of income (P= 0.002), distance of health facility (P= 0.006), opening days (P<0.001), attitudes of health workers (P<0.001) and quality of service provided (P=0.003) were found to be strong indicators of utilization of ANC services. However, occupation (P= 0.114), religion (P= 0.249) and parity (P= 0.333) have no significant relationship with utilization of ANC services. The study thus concluded that increase in awareness and accessibility to health facilities were crucial towards enhancing women utilization of ANC services.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Molecular Characterization of Salmonella from Cattle Feces in Chiang Mai, Thailand, Its Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Genetic Relatedness to Clinical Isolates

Salakchit Chutipongvivate, Yuddhakarn Yananto, Somkid Thichak, Juree Kasinrerk, Pirun Chutipongvivate

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/38538

Aims: Salmonella is the most common pathogenic bacteria causing food-borne and zoonotic diseases in humans, and food-producing animals are considered the primary source of Salmonellosis. Cattle slaughtered for human consumption have been implicated as a source of human infection with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the feces of apparently healthy slaughtered cattle and characterize the circulating non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars in cattle in Chiang Mai, Thailand as well as determine their antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic relatedness to human isolates.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2017 at the municipal abattoir in Chiang Mai, Thailand.One hundred and fifty fecal samples were collected from apparently healthy slaughtered cattle for Salmonella isolation. One hundred and ten blood samples were also collected from febrile patients at the Chiang Mai provincial hospital prior to any antimicrobial treatment. Circulating Salmonella serovars were identified using standard culture techniques and DNA sequencing, antimicrobial sensitivity was tested using a disc diffusion method, and 16S rRNA were used to determine phylogenic relationships.

Results: The results showed that the prevalence of Salmonella from cattle was 22.6%. According to the NCBI blast, three serovars were identified: S. Typhimurium (50.0%), S. Enteritidis (41.2%), and S. Weltevreden (11.8%); these serovars formed distinct clades on the phylogenetic tree. S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis isolates from cattle were closely related to human isolates. All isolates from cattle were susceptible to 10 selected commonly prescribed antimicrobials.

Conclusion: Our study revealed a high prevalence of Salmonella in healthy slaughtered cattle in Chiang Mai. S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis isolated from cattle and humans were closely related. The finding suggested that slaughtered cattle is a source of Salmonella infection in humans. This poses a major public health threat since slaughtered cattle are a potential source of food-borne salmonellosis. Therefore, the local administration should establish a system for the routine surveillance of infectious sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mansonic Schistosomiasis in the Brazilian Southeast: Spatial Analysis in Minas Gerais

Jose De Paula Silva, Salvador Boccaletti Ramos, Monica Andrade

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/39659

Introduction: Mansonic schistosomiasis is a parasitosis whose evolution is related to Brazilian history, linked to the migration currents from the Northeast, reaching the Brazilian Southeast, particularly the state of Minas Gerais.

Materials and Methods: with a view to the possible identification of clusters, the data concerning the incidence of schistosomiasis were subject to exploratory spatial analysis.

Results: The Global Moran index indicated the existence of clusters in the state. The Local Moran Index identified three clusters, one in the Northeast of Minas Gerais (Jequitinhonha, Mucuri), another in the Central-South of Rio Doceand the third cluster in the region Vertentes/Zona da Mata.

Discussion: In Minas Gerais, schistosomiasis occurs in specific areas. In addition, there exists a spatial correlation between the occurrence of the parasitosis and variables such as altitude and discharge of sanitary sewage in river/lake.

Conclusion: Schistosomiasis does not occur randomly, but in environments that somehow favour its occurrence. On the other hand, environmental factors like altitude and sanitary sewage in rivers are related to these clusters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fertility Desires and Contraceptive Practices of Rural Women in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

Oche Mansur Oche, Jessica Timane Ango, Tukur Dahiru, Godwin Jiya Gana, Rufai Liman, Khadijah Mormoni, Bello Ibrahim

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/34228

Aim: This study aimed at determining fertility desires and contraceptive practices of rural women in Sokoto as well as factors affecting them.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, involving 218 women who were recruited using a multi-stage sampling technique. An Interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data from the respondents, which was entered into and analysed using IBM SPSS version 20.

Results: About sixty-seven percent of the respondents desired more than five children and more than half desired shorter birth interval of two years. A large proportion (87.4%) of the respondents were aware of contraception in which friends and relatives, as well as health personal, were the main sources of information. Only 4.9% of the respondents were currently on contraception. Major reasons for low contraceptives usage include religious inhibitions, husband disapproval and fear of side effects

Conclusion: In this study, the respondents had high fertility desires and although a large proportion of them was aware of contraception, very few of them used it. We, therefore, recommended that health workers should create more awareness on the benefits of contraception.