Open Access Case Report

Dengue Fever Complicated by Optic Neuropathy: A Case Report

Alexis Galeno Matos, Daniel Eduardo Garcia Bezerra, Joana Tassia Pinheiro de Figueiredo, Mirlândia Maria Aguiar Vasconcelos Ribeiro

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/40654

Aim: Dengue is a mosquito borne viral disease endemic in many geographical locations of the world. It can manifest from a classic form, with fever, headache and myalgia, to more serious cases, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever, with high mortality rates. Ocular manifestations are relatively uncommon, but when present they have a wide variety of findings. Optic neuropathy is a rare manifestation and has a variable prognosis.

Presentation of Case: In this article, we report a case of optic neuropathy secondary to dengue, adopting conservative management with a significant improvement in visual acuity.

Conclusion: The treatment in neuropathy is quite controversial and not yet defined, some authors advocate the use of systemic and endovenous corticosteroids in an attempt to improve the visual prognosis, but studies reveal a spontaneous resolution in most cases, even in that cited in the article.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radiological Risks Associated with Gross Alpha and Beta Activity Concentrations of Water Resources within Salt Water Lakes, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

B. U. Nwaka, G. O. Avwiri, C. P. Ononugbo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/39066

Background: The increasing fear on the radiological status of water sourced from proximity to salt water lakes in Ohaozara LGA, Ebonyi State, Nigeria has necessitated the need to evaluate the potential radiological risk contributions to the populace consuming the various drinking water sources.

Objectives:  The study measured the radiological risk associated with gross alpha and beta activity concentrations in borehole water, Asu river, Atta stream and sachet water samples to evaluate if they are safe for drinking by the populace.

Methods: The study employed experimental research design to address the statement of the problem and achieve the aim and objectives of the study. Samples of water were collected from various sources in proximity to the salt lakes, prepared and counted for gross alpha and beta activity concentrations using a low background MPC 2000DP proportional counter. Appropriate mathematical modelling/equations were used to obtain reliable data sets.

Results: Gross alpha activity concentrations of water samples (except Atta stream) were lower than World Health Organization, (WHO) reference limit of 0.5 Bq L-1, whereas for gross beta activity concentrations, water samples (except Uburu sachet water) exceeded the WHO reference limit of 1.0 Bq L-1. Weak but positive linear correlation (p=0.44) was found between gross beta and gross alpha activity concentrations. Cancer risks and hereditary effects were calculated.

Conclusion: The obtained values of the mean annual effective dose due to ingestion of water showed that gross beta activity concentrations in various water samples were more responsible for ingestion radiation dose contributions since water samples (except Ugwulangwu borehole water and Uburu sachet water) exceeded the ICRP reference limit of 0.1 mSv y-1. Preliminary study has been provided which advised that water samples should be consumed with caution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Diabetic Emergencies in the Adult Emergency Department of a Tertiary Hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria

Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh, Agwu NKwa Amadi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/28806

Background: Diabetic emergencies or diabetic crises syndrome are life threatening complications of diabetes mellitus. As the case detection of diabetes mellitus increases in Nigeria, adult diabetic Nigerians are likely to be challenged by diabetic emergencies that predispose them to higher risk of disability and premature death.

Aim: The study was aimed at reviewing the epidemiology of diabetic emergencies in the adult emergency department of a tertiary hospital in South-eastern Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study that was conducted on patients who presented with diagnoses of diabetic emergencies to the emergency department of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria. The sources of data were from patients’ case notes; nurses report books, emergency department admission registers and medical records. Information collected were age, sex, time of presentation to the emergency department, month (season) of occurrence, type of diabetic emergency and associated cardiovascular conditions.

Results: The age ranged from 25 years to 81 years with mean age of 52.2±8.4 years. There were 86 (55.1%) males and 70 (44.9%) females with male to female ratio of 1.2: 1.  Eighty-eight (56.4%) of the patients presented during the night time, and eighty-two (52.6%) occurred during dry season. The three most common diabetic emergencies were hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (50.6%), diabetic ketoacidosis (41.6%) and hypoglycaemic crisis (7.8%). The most commonly associated cardiovascular condition was hypertension.

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the variable epidemiology of diabetic emergencies with hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state being the commonest hyperglycaemic crises syndrome, hypoglycaemic crisis the least common diabetic emergency and hypertension the commonest co-morbid cardiovascular condition. The incident occurred predominantly among the males, young adults, during dry season and most of the patients presented at night time. The emergency department data should inform the need for proactive primary care and diabetic self-management education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Health Knowledge and Oral Hygiene Practices among Secondary School Students in Bayelsa State: A Comparative Analysis

B. C. Ephraim-Emmanuel, F. Yelebe, P. S. Appi, I. E. Simeon, K. D. Solomon, O. I. Okeke, N. B. Idumesaro, B. S. Baraka, B. Romeo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/40167

Objective: In the availability of documented negative attitudes to oral health care by a populace, there have also been documented reports of an inadequacy of oral health care services despite a high demand for these services in Nigeria. This study set out to assess the oral health knowledge and practices of students in different areas in Bayelsa State having an availability and scarcity of oral healthcare services. Significant differences in the oral health knowledge and hygiene practices of these students in the perspective of availability or scarcity of oral health care services were also sought for.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in which a multistage sampling technique was utilized in selecting 1357 respondents from 6 secondary schools located within the study areas. Close-ended self-structured questionnaires seeking to determine the level of oral health knowledge (using a 4-point Likert scale) as well as oral hygiene practices of respondents was used as our instrument for data collection. Positive and negatively skewed questions were asked in order to effectively determine their level of oral health knowledge.

Results: Majority of students within the Bayelsa East Senatorial District 878 (91.0%) with a mean score of 16.35 ±1.95 and students within the Yenagoa metropolis 346 (88.3%) with a mean score of 15.87 + 1.70 had good knowledge of oral health. Concerning oral hygiene practices of the students in both study areas, the majority of students were shown to have good oral hygiene practices including the use of toothbrush and toothpaste, cleaning their mouths twice a day as well as changing their toothbrushes every 1 – 3 months. Most of the students had however never visited the dental clinic.

Conclusion: The availability or scarcity of oral health care services is not a determinant of good oral health knowledge or the practice of good oral hygiene in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suppressive Effect of Garcinia kola on the Humoral Immune Response of Mice to Hepatitis B Virus Subunit Vaccine

Ifeoma A. Onah, Ebele B. Onuigbo, Damian C. Odimegwu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/40868

Aim: Due to the health benefits of most medicinal plants, humans have resorted to their frequent and sometimes daily consumption, thus there is need to investigate the effect of medicinal plants consumption while on vaccination.

Study Design:  This study was designed to investigate the biological interaction between Garcinia kola (GK) seed extract and Hepatitis B virus Surface Antigen.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, within six (6) months.

Methodology: Fresh GK seeds were obtained, identified, dried, pulverized and stored in an air-tight container until extraction. Cold maceration technique was used for extraction. Methanol was the solvent used. Locke's method of acute toxicity testing was used to ascertain the toxicity of the extract. Afterwards, the experimental animals were grouped and vaccinated accordingly. After vaccination, sera collected from the animals were used for immunogenicity studies while the whole blood was used for total white blood cell count. During the study period, the experimental animals were monitored frequently and weighed.

Results:  The percentage yield after extraction was 16.7%. The extract was non-toxic up to 5000 mg/kg. The vaccination induced antibody responses (IgM, IgG1 and IgA) in all the groups but the response in the hepatitis B vaccine group was significantly higher than that of the hepatitis B vaccine/GK extract combination group (P<0.05), suggesting an inhibitory/ suppressive effect of G. kola on immune response to the hepatitis B surface antigen. The total white blood cell count equally revealed a suppressive effect of the extract on the hepatitis B virus surface antigen. The periodic weight monitoring reveals similar growth pattern across all other groups except the hepatitis B vaccine/GK combination group that seems not to be growing rapidly.

Conclusion: The outcome of this present study shows that at ≥250 mg/kg body weight GK seed extract demonstrates a suppressive effect on the immunogenic responses to hepatitis B surface antigen. Therefore, cautious consumption or total abstinence from GK is adviced in subjects receiving hepatitis B vaccination.