Open Access Original Research Article

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Co-infection: A Cross-sectional Household Survey in Kiruhura District, Southwestern, Uganda

Richard Onyuthi Apecu, Fred Bagenda, Frederic Byarugaba, I. I. Yap Bum

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/40254

The aim of this study was set to determine the prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infections and the associated risk factors in the general population in the district of Kiruhura-Uganda. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from April 2014 to November 2014 and 1874 people were recruited on to the study. Blood samples collected from research subjects were analyzed for HIV antibodies, HBsAg and HBcAb antibodies. Social-demographic data were captured using a questionnaire. Chi-square tests and bivariate logistic regression were used to determine the association between predictor variables. P-values at 95% confidence interval were considered significant if < 0.05. The overall viral monoinfections in the study population for HIV, HBsAg and HBcAb were 6.6% (CI; 5.5-7.8), 4.1% (CI; 3.3-5.1); and 32.8% (CI; 29.7-33.9%) respectively. Meanwhile, the prevalence of current HBV (HIV/HBsAg) and lifelong HBV (HIV/ HBcAb) coinfection was 0.6% and 2.4% respectively in the whole study population with children 5years and below having a prevalence of 0% for both co-infections. Prevalence of both HIV/HBsAg and HIV/HBcAb coinfection was higher among male gender and age group 26-45years. HIV/HBsAg coinfection was associated with being male OR = 5.5 (95% C I: 1.2 – 25.5), p-value= 0.03 and belonging to Bahima tribe OR=3.9, (95%CI: 1.1-13.5), p-value=0.032. HIV/HBcAb co-infection was associated with having high education level OR=2.1 (95% CI: 1.1 - 3.9) p-value = 0.02 and belonging to Banyoro/Batoro tribe OR=6.1, (95%CI: 1.3-28.3), p-value=0.02. Although the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV (HIV/HBV) coinfection among the study population in Kiruhura district Uganda was low, the prevalence is still substantial enough to cause a high burden of morbidity and mortality among the study population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Performance, Metabolic Efficiency and Nutrient Utilization of BALB/C Mice Infected with Leishmania major Fed with Standard Rat Pellets or Annonaceae Fruit Pulp Pellets

Lenny Mwagandi Chimbevo, Simon Muturi Karanja, Jennifer A. Orwa, Christopher Omukhango Anjili, Suliman Essuman

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/39784

This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical, biochemical, and hematological changes in male BALB/C mice infected with Leishmania major fed with standard rat pellets (RP) and Annonaceae Fruit Pulp pellets (AFPP) in different experimental exposures. The results of the study showed good palatability, acceptability and normal behaviour of the mice during the whole experimental period except in the infected groups. Furthermore, the results achieved with low levels of Annonaceae fruit pulp pellets crude proteins (3.81±0.14) and lipids (2.95±0.18) were comparable with that of RP at a level of 25.28±0.04 and 18.60±0.06 respectively. The growth parameter, metabolic efficiency and feed utilization parameters between the rat pellets and Annonaceae fruit pulp pellets in non-infected, infected non-treated and infected treated groups of mice did not differ. At the same time haematological changes, liver and kidney function parameters and lipid profile of the mice that were feed with rat pellets and Annonaceae fruit pulp pellets in non-infected, infected non-treated and infected treated were also comparable same. Other parameter measured in the study such as weight of organs (liver and spleen) parasite burden (LDU) followed the same trend. However, some of the infected non-treated groups had parameters beyond the normal ranges than the non-infected and infected treated groups at the end of the experimental period. It can be concluded that Annonaceae fruit pulp pellets can be utilized as source of raw material in the manufacture of animal feeds and neutraceuticals upon further research in higher animal model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Profile and Resistance Pattern of Blood Culture Isolates in a Tertiary Hospital in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

K. T. Wariso, M. A. Alex-Wele, C. S. Obiagwu, M. Bob-Manuel, A. J. Igunma, A. T. O. Awopeju, A. A. Jonah, K. J. J. Atemie

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/41124

Blood stream infections can result in life threatening conditions with high morbidity and mortality. Hence, prompt diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment is required. The gold standard of making a diagnosis of septicaemia is the isolation of the offending pathogen from a blood culture. A knowledge of the bacteriological profile and susceptibility patterns of organisms isolated from blood culture will help guide the choice of empirical antibiotic administration in that institution.

This study reports the bacterial profile of blood stream infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Bacterial strains isolated from 623 blood cultures from various wards of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, over a period of 24 months were retrospectively analyzed for frequency of isolation, susceptibility profile, age and gender distributions.

Overall prevalence yield from blood culture was 22.5% and gram negative bacilli accounted for 81.6% of the total yield with K. pneumoniae being the most frequently isolated organism. K pneumoniae was mostly resistant to gentamicin and ceftriaxone (95.8%) while S. aureus showed the highest resistance to cefuroxime (91.7%) followed by ceftazidime (87.5%). Majority of the samples and isolates were from neonates  representing 49.1% and 75.89% respectively and this was statistically significant P<0.05 while ages between 1-18 months and adult accounted for  18.44% and 5.67% of the total  isolates respectively.

The exhibition of multidrug resistance to the commonly used antibiotics buttresses the need for a review of the empirical antibiotic regimen used in sepsis. It also emphasizes the importance of the use of more sensitive and rapid methods of bacterial detection from blood culture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Attitude and Practices of Pregnant Women Attending Comprehensive Health Centre, Isolo, Ondo State towards Hygienic Practice

Damilola R. Nun, Emmanuel O. Adesuyi, Samuel A. Olawoore

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/40582

The study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices of pregnant women attending the Comprehensive Health Centre, Isolo, Ondo state Nigeria towards hygienic practice. A descriptive research design was utilized. The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of the Comprehensive Health Centre, Isolo, Ondo state, Nigeria.  A sample size of one hundred and twenty (120) at 4 percent error (5 more respondents) to accommodate for attrition rate was gotten by using Germany's rule. Accidental, convenience sampling technique was adopted. One Hundred and twenty-five (125) questionnaires were distributed, 50 each for three consecutive weeks of antenatal appointments. The instrument for data collection adopted for this study was a self-designed questionnaire consisting of closed-ended questions. One hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires were retrieved. Data collected were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 22), same were presented and summarized through the use of tables and charts. Pearson chi-square goodness of fit test was used to test the two null hypothesis, both of which were accepted. This suggested there was no significant statistical relationship between the variables tested. The implication was that parity and the knowledge of pregnant women had no significant impact or influence on their practice of hygiene. Although the result indicated a high level of knowledge but a little disparity in the attitude and practice, though considerably high too. It was deduced that hygienic practices do not involve just one aspect of personal cleanliness but rather a collection of careful behaviors and practices to maintain safety and prevent the spread of disease especially in handling what stays on our body and what goes in. It was suggested that nurses, midwives, and other health care providers must ensure that pregnant women are health educated on the several ways to keep themselves free from infection during pregnancy. This will be best achieved during ante-natal clinics, children clinics as well as when they visit the hospitals.

Open Access Review Article

Interventions in Older Adults with Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review

Benjamin Lopez-Nolasco, Alicia Alvarez-Aguirre, Veronica Margarita Hernandez- Rodriguez, Leticia Casique Casique, Gloria Calixto Olalde, Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/40471

Aims: To analyze and assess the scientific evidence regarding interventions for alcohol consumption in older adults.

Methodology: Integrative review of articles published in the period from 2012 to 2016 in the databases MEDLINE, CINHAL, LILACS, Academic Search Complete, with the descriptors adult elderly, intervention, alcohol, 25 publications were selected for critical analysis.

Results: The type of interventions designed for the elderly are cognitive-behavioral, educational modality, brief intervention, with the use of printed and technological material, the most used instruments are the CARET and AUDIT, the interventions showed effectiveness in reducing the alcohol consumption with a small effect size. The join effect measure cannot be calculated because the studies show different effect measures.

Conclusions: There are few intervention studies aimed at the elderly for the decrease in alcohol consumption, given the magnitude of the problem, it is suggested to carry out intervention studies, based on theory, with a medium to large effect size.