Open Access Short Research Article

Preventive Actions against Pediculus capitis humanus in Children of a Community Riverside's Metropolitan Region of Belém-Pará in Eastern Amazon

Dhiego Lima Costa, Daniele Salgado de Sousa, Rebeson Moraes da Silva, Matheus Pinheiro, Flávio Luiz Fonseca de Almeida Moraes Jú, Ysadora Maria Rodrigues Pinto, Vitor Hugo Auzier Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/41299

Pediculosis is a common pathology in poor populations of several cities. However, it is even more incidental and neglected in riverine populations. Based on this assumption, this study proposed the collection of data on this disease in these populations, as well as the treatment through kits and demystification of the general aspects of this disease. According to the results, 71% of the individuals that participated in this research presented pediculosis; 69% of the cases occurred in the female sex; and more often in an age group of individuals between 9 and 12 years of age; in addition, it was observed that, of the individuals in this study, 34% used chemical methods to treat, through products purchased in pharmacy; and, worryingly, 38% did not use any method of treatment. As a result, massive intervention of the pharmacist as primary health agent in these riverside populations is necessary, in order to clarify the risks of the non-treatment of this pathology, as well as to clarify the indications of the best methods, and against indications of orthodox and non-orthodox, and still work in health education in schools, where are the individuals most frequently affected by pediculosis and in family health programs, together with community health agents, in the homes of individuals affected by this parasite. In addition, the creation of a portal of contact and doubts between affected families and the basic health units of the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Count Models on Infant and Child Mortality in Nigeria: A Comparative Study

Kolawole S. Oritogun, Elijah A. Bamgboye

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/40601

Background: Majority of studies on determinants of Infant and Child Mortality in Nigeria were mainly analyzed using binary models such as Logistic model, Hazard Proportional model, and Probit model which categorized infant mortality as a categorical variable. However, this study is aimed at comparing count models in identifying factors associated with Infant and Child mortality in Nigeria. 

Methods: This study made use of 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data. This was a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design study. The models used were Poisson model (POM), Zero-Inflated Poisson model (ZIPM), Negative Binomial model (NBIM), and Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial model (ZINBIM). Model selection criteria were Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Lilliefors test.              

Results: Results from the model comparison for infant and child mortality showed that POM and ZINBIM had the smallest AIC values of 15167.95 and 22699.48 while the p-values for Lilliefors test for both models were  0.5553 and 0.3338 respectively, hence of best fit. Birth order, breastfeeding, parents’ education (primary/no education), toilet type (no facility, other type apart from pit latrine) and place of delivery (home) were identified to be positively associated with associated with childhood mortality (P<0.05) while Mother’s age, place of delivery (private/public hospital) and antenatal visits had negative association with childhood mortality hence experienced less child mortality.

Conclusion: Poisson model and Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial model were of best fit to model Infant and Child mortality in Nigeria respectively. Parents’ education, the practice of family planning and discouragement of mixed feeding will go a long way in reducing infant and child mortality in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Community Awareness about Diphtheria Prevention and Control in Hodeidah, Yemen 2018

Abdulla Salem Bin Ghouth, Mohammed Amood AL–Kamarany, Khalid Suhail, Elham El-Absy, Tarek Abdulkarim, Munear Majam, Yousra Khabaz, Wafa Faqeeh, Wardah Al-Mahwety, Walled Abu Talib, Asma Al-Dhahwi, Mohammad Hijam, Marwan Al-Ahdal, Hashem Muamer, Sameer Bokhamy

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/40750

Background: Unfortunately; diphtheria occurres in Yemen as a fatal epidemic since the end of 2017. Al-Hodeida governorate (at Western Yemen) is represented as the second governorate in Yemen for the burden of diphtheria epidemic. Different NGOs and ministry of health conducted control measures to combat the epidemic including health education but the awareness of the local inhabitants was not assessed before.

Aim: To assess the community awareness towards diphtheria prevention and control.

Study Design: Cross sectional study

Place and Duration of the Study: Three districts in Hodeidah governorate in Yemen (Al-Hali, Al-Hawak and Biat Al-Faqih districts). The study is conducted during January 2018.

Methodology: A sample size of 336 adults over 18 years of age living in the targeted districts were recruited in the study. The data was collected through patient's home visits.

Results: The mean awareness score of diphtheria is 2.8, this is a poor indicator, because it is less than the expected mean score of 3.5. The mean awareness score in males is 10.9, while in females is 10.3, but the difference is not significant. Only 41% of persons interviewed are aware about the disease (35.3% in Al-Hawak and 31.9% in Al-Hali districts), better awareness were observed in Biat Al-Faqih district (70.7%). Knowledge about the availability of vaccine against diphtheria is of the highest proportion (47.6%) while poorest knowledge is regarding the transmission of the disease (37.5%).

Conclusion: The local community is not aware about diphtheria as a fatal disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practice of Hormonal Contraception among High School Teens

Felicien Habumugisha, Jean Baptiste Nyandwi, Justin Ntokamunda Kadima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/41519

Background: Unwanted pregnancies in sexually active teenagers give headaches to many parents and are devastating for the girls themselves. The use of hormonal contraception (HC) is an issue, but the promotion of HC at this age is perhaps a complex issue.

Objective: Evaluate knowledge and practice of HC among high school girls in Rwanda.

Methods: 134 girls aged 15 to 19 from two high schools responded confidentially to a standard open questionnaire on their knowledge and practice of HC.

Results: More than 87% of those surveyed had heard of HC, but not everyone could tell the exact role of taking birth control pills. The main source of information on contraception was the media and health care providers, while parents and the role of school education were negligible. About 10.4% of respondents confirmed having used HC on their own initiative or under pressure from their partners. The reason girls practice sex at this age is mainly poverty, the need to live luxuriously and culture. More than half expect to use contraception if the cost is affordable and they have complete information on side effects and how to use it.

Conclusion: A marginal group of schoolchildren practice HC. They need good information about it. However, there is still controversy in Africa over whether to promote the use of contraception at the secondary level. After all, adequate educational intervention through other means of reducing unwanted pregnancy rates among sexually active adolescents is of great importance.

Open Access Review Article

Past and Current Findings in Antimalarial Drug Resistance Molecular Markers in Endemic Areas of Africa

Cynthia Ufuoma Adjekukor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/41204

Antimalarial drug resistance is the major challenge in the treatment of malaria all over the world. Plasmodium species are the parasite that causes malaria. Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent species found in sub-Saharan Africa that records the highest infections and death caused by malaria worldwide. Resistance to P. falciparum is caused by mutations in some target genes of the parasite, which includes Plasmodium falciparum: Na+/ Hexchanger (Pfnhe-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt), dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps), dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr), multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1), cytochrome b, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Pfmrp1), cg2 (Pfcg2), Ca2+ ATPase (PfATPase6) and kelch 13 gene. Most of these mutations are single nucleotide polymorphisms and has led to the decrease in susceptibility of some drugs like chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, amodiaquine, sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, lumefantrine and artemisinins in the treatment of malaria. The aim of this review was to survey on the existing antimalarial drug resistance in endemic areas of Africa and suggests a way forward in combating drug-resistant malaria in this region.