Open Access Short Research Article

Clinical and Mycological Study of Pityriasis Versicolor in Relation to Species

S. Sreelakshmi, V. Ajith, T. P. Thankappan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/41886

Background: Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the skin caused by the yeast of Malassezia sp. genus. Although the disease has been described at the beginning of the 19th century, classification of its etiological agent was a matter of debate. There is only scanty information about the epidemiology and ecology of Malassezia species available and the clinical significance of the species is not completely recognized.

Aims: To evaluate the clinical & epidemiological pattern and to isolate different species of Malassezia. Also to assess the correlation between a particular species and different colors of the lesion.

Results: In this study young people of both sex are most commonly affected. Most of the lesion are hypo-pigmented and affect the upper part of the body. A few flexural lesions are also seen. M. dermatis is the most commonly isolated species. No significant association with the color of the lesion and a species was found.

Limitation: Small sample size and difficulty to maintain the culture are two major limitations of this study.

Conclusion: M. dermatis was found as the most common species in patients with Pityriasis versicolor. Further studies about species and antifungal sensitivity will help to treat the disease better.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Childhood Malaria Morbidities in Nigeria: Secondary Analysis of 2015 Malaria Indicator Survey

Tukur Dahiru, Aliyu A. Alhaji, Lawal Ahmadu, Moses A. Oyefabi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/40520

Background: In Nigeria, malaria remains an important public health problem accounting for 25% of infant mortality, 30% of under-five mortality and 11% of maternal mortality. Between 2000 and 2010, at least 50% of the population had an episode of malaria per year while under-five children had 2-4 episodes. Currently, malaria parasite prevalence is still high with average prevalence of 45.0%.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey utilizing data from the Nigeria 2015 MIS. The outcome variables were fever in the past two before the survey, positive blood smear for malaria parasite and positive rapid malaria diagnostic test (RDT). Statistical analysis was the survey logistic regression.

Results: A total number of 6632 children and 8034 mothers were used for the analysis. Overall, prevalences of fever, malaria parasitaemia and positive RDT are 41%, 27% and 45% respectively. Significant and uniform determinants of the three outcomes are: geopolitical zone, place of residence, wealth quintile and indoor residual spray; other maternal factors are preventive practices and knowledge of malaria prevention. 

Conclusion: Socio-economic status and maternal knowledge of malaria prevention are important factors that influence childhood malaria morbidities. These factors need to be taken into consideration when planning malaria control programmes in order to have effective programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ebola Preparedness of Health Facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

Osisiogu Udochukwu Emmanuel, Obeng Obenewaa Hannah Anita, Akanlu A. Servacious, Verner N. Orish

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/41774

The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa exposed many fundamental weaknesses in the healthcare delivery system in affected countries, principally the poor disease surveillance, preparedness and outbreak response mechanisms. The cross-border importation of disease cases prompted many countries to strengthen their internal capacities to prevent or contain possible outbreaks. However, the existing EVD response measures seem inadequate in some high-risk countries. Here, we evaluate the preparedness of health facilities in Greater Accra, Ghana’s second most populated region, for a possible EVD outbreak, and identify issues of policy and public health relevance. The study followed a cross-sectional pattern involving 64 health facilities (32 government-owned and 32 privately owned) in eight districts. Data were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to hospital administrators and analyzed qualitatively. Four hospitals in two metropolitan areas were considered adequately resourced to admit EVD patients and had protocols for managing disease cases with surveillance and logistical supplies available. Twenty-one other facilities comprising 17 hospitals, 2 polyclinics and 2 health centres were prepared to attend to initial EVD cases before referring suspected cases to the four adequately resourced hospitals. The remaining 39 health facilities had no capacity for EVD management. Generally, health facilities within the Greater Accra Region were inadequately prepared to handle initial EVD cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variable Efficacy of Clinically Important Biocides against Common Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Tertiary Hospitals in Nigeria

Ogbolu D. Olusoga, Alli O. A. Terry, Yahyah R. Abolore, Oluremi A. Sunday, A. Webber Mark

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/41707

Aim: There has not been any critical assessment of the efficacy and choice of biocides/disinfectants used in various tertiary hospitals of Nigeria despite several reports of high-level bacterial resistance to the antibiotics. The aim of the study was to determine the activity of some commonly used biocides against bacterial isolates from tertiary hospitals of Nigeria.

Study Design: This following study was a cross-sectional study.

Methods: Fifty-three non-duplicate bacterial isolates were obtained from different tertiary hospitals. Susceptibility to the selected antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of a range of biocides been also determined using microtitre broth testing followed by inoculation onto agar.

Results: A high prevalence of resistance to critical antibiotics were observed for Gram-negative bacteria (>85% of isolates were resistant to cephalosporins and >75% were resistant to fluoroquinolones). Imipenem remained active against >90% of Gram-negative isolates. Over half (52.2%) of the isolates of S. aureus were found to be resistant to cefoxitin, indicating methicillin resistance which is common.

S. aureus showed the greatest tolerance to all the biocides that are used and compared to other species although all species exhibited tolerance to some agents. Whilst sodium hypochlorite remained effective against all the strains, (at 0.5 – 2%), like ethanol and triclosan which were less effective even at the popular70% formulation of ethanol. None of the S. aureus isolates was inhibited by any alcohol concentration tested and various other species had high levels of tolerance. Chloroxylenol was active against some strains but some were fully tolerant of the concentrations tested.

All the test of biocides were bactericidal with MBC/MIC ratios of >4. There was no statistical difference between diffusion and dilution techniques in determining the susceptibility of the isolates to biocides except for P. aeruginosa.

Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite and chloroxylenol are the biocides of choice for hospital disinfection in Nigeria according to this study. Ethanol is unreliable at lower concentrations and should be used at high concentrations in order to achieve the requisite efficacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Male Partners’ Socio-demographic Characteristics, Attitude and Behaviours as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria – Evidence from National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2013

Oyefabi Adegboyega, Musa Tasiu, Nkeiruka Ameh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/42085

Introduction: The World Health Organization defines intimate partner violence or domestic violence as any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationship. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2013 reported that about 1 in 3 married women 15-49 years (28%) ever experienced intimate physical violence, while a quarter reported ever having experienced emotional, physical, or sexual violence from their husbands/partners.

Methods: This study utilized the Nigeria 2013 NDHS data for the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the male partners’ characteristics that were the predictors of physical and sexual intimate partners’ violence in Nigeria.

Results: The mean age of the respondent was 28. ± 7.3 while that of the male partners was 37±7.5 years. Majority of the women significantly had not attained any formal education 3942(45.5%) compared to their male partners. Most were married (97.1%), some involved in trading, (36.9%), while the male partners were mainly farmers (37.5%) and service providers (29.9%). The odd of occurrence of physical violence was about 5 times higher at age >=55 years (OR=4.6, 95%CI=1.0-21.1) than ages 15-24 years. Husbands/partners with only Primary or secondary education attainment, unemployed, in a monogamous union, alcoholic or exhibit controlling behaviours were associated with higher odds of physical and sexual IPV (OR>1) than those who did not.

Conclusion: The age of the husband, educational status, income, alcoholism and controlling behaviours were major predictors of IPVs in Nigeria during the NDHS 2013.