Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Malaria on Selected Liver Function Profiles of Children in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

G. N. Wokem, E. Nnadi, O. Azuonwu, A. Okafor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/42503

A cross sectional investigation of the effects of malaria infection on selected liver function profiles of children in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, was conducted. Exactly 1000 randomly selected children aged 1-10 years were involved after institutional ethical clearance and informed consent from their parents were obtained. Exactly 694 of the children, who were malaria positive represented the test group while 306 children apparently healthy, formed the control group. About 10 ml of blood was collected from each child through venopuncture with hypodermic syringe; 4 ml was dispensed into EDTA bottle for Plasmodium identification while 6ml each, was dispensed into lithium bottle for liver function tests. Thick and thin blood films were giemsa stained. Total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin were assayed using standard biochemical techniques. Malaria prevalence was 69.4%; age group 1-5 years was significantly (P<0.05) more infected (39.7%) than age group 6-10 years (29.7%).Total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly elevated (P<0.05) in malaria subjects.There was a statistically significant (P<0.5) reduction of albumin levels in tests than in the controls. Àmong high malaria parasitaemic subjects, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, and aspartate aminotransferase were more elevated significantly (P<0.05) than those of low parasitaemic subjects. These significant changes in these parameters suggest that malaria parasitaemia has significant negative effects on the integrity and functions of the liver which may lead to mortality if ignored.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Malaria Parasitaemia among Symptomatic Patients in Buea, Cameroon

Judith Lum Ndamukong-Nyanga, Patakinzo Channe Guria, Ngum Catherine Ndamukong, Desdemona Njabi Nji, Nyanga Bernard Yunga

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/42812

Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is the main etiological factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. Malaria is one of the world's most prevalent vector-borne diseases and the leading cause of illness and death. While infection with either malaria or H. pylori can cause illness and death, infection with one can make an infection with the other worse and/or more difficult to treat. 

Main Objective: The primary objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of malaria and malaria parasitaemia among symptomatic gastritis patients in Buea.

Method: The study was a cross-sectional study carried out from March 2017 to July 2017. The study population comprised of 150 patients who came to the hospital laboratory for H. pylori test requested by the physician. A structured questionnaire was used to get demographic and clinical data. Two ml of blood was collected from the patients into an EDTA tube using venipuncture technique. Few drops of blood were used to prepare a thick and thin blood film for malaria parasite determination, and the slides were allowed to air dry. The remaining blood in the EDTA tube was then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5minutes to obtain plasma. The H. pylori test strip was then removed from the pack and two drops of serum were placed on the sample region. The results were read after five minutes.

Results and Discussion: The general prevalence of malaria, H. pylori infection and the co-infection were 26.55, 21.9% and 9.9% respectively. There was a significant difference (p ˂0.05) in the prevalence of H. pylori among the age groups, gender and educational level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Health Workers Concerning Kangaroo Mother Care

Boma A. N. Okoh, Uchenna C. Onubogu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/42974

 

Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a low-cost intervention in the care of neonates with numerous advantages that reduce mortality. Knowledge and attitude of health workers towards KMC influences practice.

Objectives: To determine the knowledge of Nigerian health workers and their attitudes towards the practice of KMC

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 157 health workers at a scientific conference. Questionnaires were used to collect information on personal and health facility information, aspects on knowledge and attitudes towards KMC. Data was analyzed using EPI INFO version 7.

Results: There were 157 respondents from different health facilities from all over the Country. The number of respondents with a good level of knowledge [142(90.4%)] surpassed those with a good level of attitude [136(86.6%)]. The level of knowledge of KMC was significantly higher among doctors (p=0.017), paediatricians (p=0.033) and respondents that worked in facilities that care for sick neonates (p=0.024). The attitude level towards KMC was significantly higher among respondents that worked in facilities that care for sick neonates (p=0.047) and those that worked in facilities with functional incubators (p=0.040).

Conclusion: There was generally good knowledge and attitudes towards KMC. There is a need for further research on the reasons for knowledge-attitude gap regarding KMC.

Open Access Review Article

Diagnostic Relevance and Clinical Interpretation of Hepatitis B Virus Serological Profile Testing

Chidi Ugwuoke, Isah Sulaiman Yahaya, Hamid Kabiru Magaji, Aminu Sulaiman

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/43041

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a public health menace in many regions of the world. The dynamic nature of the infection and the characteristic variations in the serological markers associated with the various phases of the infection makes its classification, treatment and management a serious challenge to health professionals. Hepatitis B serologic profile is generated from the measurement of several hepatitis B virus specific antigens and antibodies. Immunological responses from the constellation of the assay report can be used to differentiate acute from chronic infection; classify the different phases of the infection; recognise past, resolved and active infection; identify occult and mutant form of the infection. Accurate interpretation of the profile report will abet the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus infection and its associated disease, hence, identifying and linking infected individuals, to appropriate care and treatment services, thereby reducing hepatitis B related mortality and unnecessary expenses on unwarranted medications. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the various forms of HBV infection, the natural history of chronic hepatitis B infection, the serological markers and a guide to the interpretation of the various serological patterns associated with hepatitis B virus infection with the sole purpose of providing myriad of relevant information to guide healthcare providers in the diagnosis, treatment and management of those infected with HBV.

Open Access Review Article

Rheumatoid Arthritis in Image of Magnetic Resonance: A Proposal for Review of Literature

Rebeson Moraes da Silva, Daniele Salgado de Sousa, Fábio Salgado da Silva, Ysadora Maria Rodrigues Pinto, Dhiego Lima Costa, Matheus Pinheiro, Vitor Hugo Auzier Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/42095

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic polyarthritis of unknown etiology resulting in progressive destruction of bone and joint failure may be assessed by methods OMERACT group as RAMRIS, resulting tool advances in MRI. Objective: This study aimed to offer a new reading of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis, describing results obtained by various authors using the criteria of OMERACT (Measurements of Results in Clinical Trials of Rheumatoid Arthritis) / RAMRIS (Rheumatoid Arthritis Counting System in Magnetic Resonance Imaging), suggesting it as a method of diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Materials and Methods: We used recent articles, publications in editorials and master's theses on the criterion of literature to which the present review is based. Articles from more distant dates for 5 years were also used by having indispensability for this study. Results: MRI proved to be the best method of diagnosis and monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis and applied the criteria of OMERACT group through RAMRIS. The RAMRIS is shown to be able to guide the best diagnostic evaluations and proof of therapeutic efficiency in the use of disease-modifying medicines. Conclusion: The method RAMRIS protocols can be played on most services, requiring radiologists trained on the criteria of OMERACT group to be introduced to their routines.