Open Access Original Research Article

Association of TNF-alpha with Blood Pressure Levels in Prehypertensive Adults in Makurdi, Nigeria

A. Agbecha, S. J. Gberindyer

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/41507

Background: Previous studies have reported vascular inflammation in hypertension, which mediates its complications. However, studies’ regarding vascular inflammation in prehypertensives has been neglected.

Aim: Our study aims at investigating vascular inflammation using tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in prehypertensive individuals.

Materials and Methods: This case-control study comprised of 70 randomly selected male and female patients aged 18-55 years, who were attending general health, check up at a tertiary hospital. The biochemical and anthropometric parameters of 35 prehypertensives were compared with 35 normotensive control group.

Results: Prehypertensives (systolic blood pressure [SBP] 130.91±8.70; diastolic BP 83.17±5.86) had significant (P˂.002), elevated TNF-α level compared to anthropometrically matched normotensives (SBP 111.03±6.89; DBP 70.40±3.87). No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in the levels of lipids between the two study groups. A significant positive correlation was observed between; TNF-α and SBP (r=.387, P=.022), TNF-α and DBP (r=.381, P=.024) in the prehypertensive group. There was no significant correlation (P>0.05) between; TNF-α and plasma lipids, TNF-α and body mass index, TNF-α and waist circumference in the prehypertensive group.

Conclusion: Our study observes a positive association of TNF-α with blood pressure in prehypertensives. It is indicative that prehypertension predisposes individuals to mild chronic inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Serologic and Epidemiological Study of Dengue Virus Infection in North Central Area of Trinidad and Tobago

Kadia Kallap, Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, Chandrashekehar Unakal, Arvind Kurhade, Randy Surujlal

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/43271

Aims: This study was carried out to determine the observed serological and significant epidemiological risk factors for dengue fever infection in a cross-section of the population in Trinidad and Tobago.

Study Design: This was an observational cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of Paraclinical Sciences of the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago, over a period of 10 months, October 2016 to July 2017.

Materials and Methods:  Over 450 individuals from a cross section of the population residing in the northern part of Trinidad Island were surveyed. These included individuals suspected of having dengue fever that presented to the healthcare facilities with complaints of fever along with some other symptoms suggestive of dengue viral illness. There was no age, gender or ethnic bias. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain epidemiological data. Blood samples taken from consented participants were analyzed using rapid immune chromatographic tests (ICTs) – Panbio, SD Bioline and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA).  The samples were also tested for baseline blood parameters such as platelets and haemoglobulin. The epidemiological data were analysed using SPSS version 21.

Results: Analysis of 380 individuals who fulfilled study criteria revealed that there were no demographic characteristics (age, gender, locality, etc.) that showed statistical significance with having a dengue infection. Retro-orbital pain, headaches and respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough, cold) showed differences that were significant with those having a dengue infection. No statistical significance was found in any comorbidity (diabetes, hypertension and asthma) factors considered and patients with dengue infections. Evaluation of platelet counts showed that only 5.4% samples had abnormal range, while 80% of those that tested positive were not significant either. Monitoring of platelet levels is still very important, but it showed that it is not an indicator of worsening dengue because 95.3% of the positive cases were within normal levels.

Conclusions: Except for nonspecific symptoms observed among patients suspected of dengue fever, there were no other significant factors that were exclusive in identifying dengue infection among the subjects studied. Platelet monitoring may not be the only parameter to use in determining deteriorating dengue patients. Vector eradication activities should be intensified with other efforts such as education program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge of Sickle Cell Disease and Premarital Genotyping among Youths in Mairi Ward, Jere Local Government of Borno State North-Eastern Nigeria

Nelson Lola, Robert Teryila Kever, Markus Uba, Sambo Danlami, Salamatu Ishaku, Mamma Jonah Tsado, Abbas Umar Ibrahim

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/34442

Knowledge on premarital genotyping and sickle cell disease among youths could constitute an important variable that influences their choice of spouse. The study assessed the knowledge on premarital genotyping and Sickle Cell Disease among youths in Mairi Ward, Jere Local Government area of Borno State, North-eastern Nigeria.

A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted for the study and 350 youths were selected using available non-probability sampling. The participants voluntarily completed a self- administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was structured and validated (Cronbach-Alpha of 0.85). Data were analysed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 21.

The age bracket of participants was 14-35 years, modal range 26-30 years. The majority (95.6%) of the respondents had general awareness about the existence of SCD and pre-marital genotyping through internet, but comprehensive knowledge about the mode of diagnosis, signs and symptoms as well as preventive measures was low. Knowledge of Pre-Marital genotype Testing and SCD was significantly related to marital status and level of education. The study recommends that, if sickle cell disease control strategies must yield any significant results, there is need to intensify the use of mass media in imparting knowledge of SCD and premarital genotyping in the community since very many of the respondents knew sickle cell disease through mass media.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Wheezes and Asthma among Preschool Children (1-6 Years) in Rural Sudan 2016

Sayed Halay, Siham Ahmed Balla, Taha Ahmed Elmukashfi Elsheikh, Heitham Awadalla, Amani Ahmed Burbr, Emtinan Khalid Hamid, Asma Abdelaal Abdalla, Zeinab Swareldahab, Zeinab Ammara, Elfatih Malik, Haieder Abuahmed Mohamed

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/43207

Background: Asthma has increased in many countries over recent years and there is little information regarding the prevalence of current wheezing episodes and asthma among preschool children in rural areas of Sudan.

Objective: To identify the prevalence of current wheezes, diagnosed asthma and risk factors among preschool children in rural Sudan.

Materials and Methods: A cross section study was carried out in seventeen rural areas that were randomly selected from three states in Sudan.  The eligible study population was preschool children 1-6 years of age. A total of 3352 preschool children from 890 households (3-5 children per household) were included in the study. A questionnaire adapted from the international study of asthma and allergies in children (ISAAC) was used. Descriptive statistics was presented and chi-square test at 95% CL was used to test the associations of current wheezes, asthma and risk factors.

Results: There were 1633 males (48.7%) and 1719 females (51.3%) with mean age 4.03+1.83 years. Children who ever had wheezing episode were 684(20.4%) and those who had current wheeze accounted to 558 (16.6%). Children who were diagnosed with asthmatic by a doctor were 233 (7.0%). Sex was associated with current wheezes in favour to male preschool children than females, 299 (53.6%) and 259 (46.4%) respectively, p-value 0.014.  Difficulty in sleep, speech and play because of current wheezing episodes were found in 172(30.8%), 274(49.1%) and 281 (50.4%) preschool children respectively.  Preschool children who experienced any type of allergy (respiratory or skin) and cough without flu or chest infection during the last 12 months accounted to 200 (36.0%) and 371 (66.5%) respectively. 

Presence of smokers, animals and fumes in the households of preschool children were significantly associated with wheezing episodes, p-values 0.014, 0.014 and 0.001 respectively.  There was also a significant association between being diagnosed with asthma and the presence of smokers, fumes and trees in the households, p-values 0.022, 0.039 and 0.020 respectively.

Conclusions: The prevalence of wheezes and asthma among preschool children in rural Sudan is alarming. Smoking, fumes and animals were significantly associated with wheezes. Strengthening of asthma prevention and control in rural Sudan and raising community awareness are recommended.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Malaria Prevention in Pregnancy: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine Intermittent Preventive Treatment, Resistance and Update on Potential Preventive Strategy

Mila Nu Nu Htay, Wai Wai Myint, Htay Lwin, Angus E. Aranan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/43448

Malaria in pregnancy is a major international public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions because pregnancy is a unique period vulnerable to malaria infection. In the Sub Saharan Africa region, the subclinical infection usually occurs during pregnancy and leads to the maternal anaemia, intrauterine growth retardation of the foetus, low birth weight and infantile deaths. The WHO recommended the use of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine (SP) as intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for pregnant women living in moderate to high malaria transmission regions. The increasing number of SP-resistant parasites is a threatening matter for public health prophylaxis intervention. Therefore, in the context of threatening SP resistance, there is a need to consider the alternative strategies to IPTp-SP. This review discussed the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features of malaria in pregnancy, a current preventive regimen with SP, and the threat of SP resistance and outlined the potential preventive treatment strategy with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP).