Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Nontreponemal Reactive Test in Women at Childbirth in a Maternity Facility in the Central Region of Rondonia State, Brazil

Marcilene Alves da Silva Costa, Amanda Almeida de Oliveira, Fernanda Torlani Alves Gomes, Rosineide Vieira Gois

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/18872

Background: Syphilis is an infectious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochaeta Treponema pallidum. This disease is still a problem in public health, particularly in developing countries.

Aims: This study aimed to analyze the incidence of syphilis in women at childbirth in a maternity facility in the city of Ji-Paraná, state of Rondonia in Brazil.

Study Design: An analytical, cross-sectional, prospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (CEULJI/ULBRA) and the public maternity facility of the Ji-Paraná city, between August 2 to October 2, 2014.

Methodology: We investigated a total of 300 pregnant women at childbirth. When VDRL test was positive a semi-structured interview was administered.

Results: We found 5 women (1.66%) with VDRL positive tests, however only one newborn, whose mother did not perform prenatal or therapy care, had a significant serology titration according to Brazilian diagnostic guidelines. Diagnosed women in this research were all adults with an average of 21.8±2.8 years of age, with basic education, married, and low income.

Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of VDRL positive tests in women at childbirth was similar to that reported in the latest studies in Brazil. However, the results found in this study show that Brazilian Unified Health System is far from the established goal for 2015 and strongly suggests that it may not be reached.

Open Access Original Research Article

Unpacking the Sociocultural Environment: Realities, Practices and Prevention of Disease Outbreaks in Uganda’s Borderpoint Districts

Gloria K. Seruwagi, Catherine L. Nakidde

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/19856

Aim: The study was undertaken to deepen understanding of the community’s knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviours (KAPB) regarding epidemics.

Methods: This was a qualitative cross-sectional study conducted in four Ugandan border districts of Arua, Adjumani, Koboko and Kiryandongo. It used mixed methods and data were collected using observation, community dialogues, focus group discussions and key informant interviews.

Results: The porous nature of Uganda’s border points and diversity of communities therein presents massive health system challenges in the prevention of and response to disease outbreaks. While some community KAPB might play a protective role, others are potentially harmful within the context of epidemics and demonstrate incongruence with disease facts or messages from disease experts.

Conclusion: We conclude that most community KAPB are entrenched in poverty, go beyond the scope of disease prevention or the health sector and call for concerted effort from across the political, geographical, social and economic divide. Approaches to community engagement in epidemic prevention and response should be cognizant of diversity and move beyond information dissemination to actually supporting behavioral change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Body Fat Using Leg-to-leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Method among School Adolescents in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria

Muhammad Murtala Ahmad, Hamidu Ahmed, Kareem I. Airede

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21555

Background: Excess body fat is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and gallbladder diseases. Body mass index (BMI) being the most widely used method of obesity assessment does not differentiate between individuals whose weight is as a result of excess fat or excess muscle mass. This is significant because it is the amount of excess fat rather than mere excess weight that determines the health risks of obesity. Therefore, techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that estimate body fat assume more importance in this regard.

Aim: To determine the pattern of body fat and prevalence of obesity, using Leg to leg BIA technique among apparently healthy school adolescents in Sokoto, Nigeria.

Methodology: A cross sectional study involving 360 subjects (180 males, 180 females, age range 10-18 years) selected from 6 schools within Sokoto metropolis, by a multi-stage random sampling. Subject’s weights, heights and BIA were measured. Age and gender specific percentage body fat cut-off values according to McCarthy et al. were used to classify subjects as overweight or obese.

Results: The mean percentage body fat (%BF) values were 8.2±4.1% for the males and 20.0±6.8% for the females (P<0.001). Mean BMI of the subjects were 18.3±2.7kg/m2 for males, and 19.3±3.1 kg/m2 for the females (P=0.001). Steady increase in body fat (%BF) with age was observed among the females, with the %BF values also being higher in the females (P<0.001). Based on the BIA method, the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity were 2.5% and 1.7% respectively. With the BMI method however, the prevalence of overweight was 3.3% and 1.4% for obesity. Age 15 years had the highest number of obese subjects (33.3%) whereas; ages 16 and 18 years had the highest number of overweight subjects (22.2% each).

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the feasibility of using leg-to-leg BIA in body fat assessment in children. It is therefore, recommended that BIA be widely used in clinical practice for obesity studies, because it is a simple and precise tool for body fat assessment in children and adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Obesity on Disease Progression and Response to Antiviral Treatment in HCV Genotype 4 Patients

Lamiaa Mobarak, Mohammed M. Nabeel, Zeinab Zakaria

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21542

Background and Study Aims: Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Steatosis and high body mass index (BMI) may be associated with disease progression in patients with chronic HCV. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity defined according to body mass index and response to Pegylated Interferon (IFN) and Ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients with genotype 4.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for IFN based therapy (PEG-IFN and RBV) from Jan. 2008 to June 2010 at National Hepatology Research Institute, Egypt. All patients were subjected to clinical examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasonography and liver biopsy. Data analysis was used to reveal whether high BMI was a variable related to treatment non response.

Results: All patients were classified into two groups according to BMI (non obese, <30 kg/m2; obese, ≥30 kg/ m2). It showed no significant difference in response to treatment according to BMI (P= 0.1). BMI at cut off 33.5 kg/m2 can predict presence of significant fibrosis (› F3) with a sensitivity and specificity of 68.4% and 80.6% respectively with AUC 0.79. Hepatic steatosis was not a risk factor for non response to antiviral treatment.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that obesity, when BMI ≥30 kg/m2, is not an independent risk factor for impaired response to hepatitis C treatment. While obesity is a predictor of fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immunoassay Method as Diagnostic Tool for Enteric Amoebiasis and Cryptosporidiosis in Some Rural Communities, of Kwara State, Nigeria

S. K. Babatunde, E. A. Ajiboye, R. M. Adedayo, M. A. Adetumbi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/20779

Background: Laboratory diagnosis of enteric amoebiasis and cryptosporidiosis in rural communities and urban cities in sub-Saharan Africa depends on use of microscopic method that has been adjured to be unspecific, more sensitive and specific methods are needed such as immunoassay method.  

Objective: This study compared the use of antigen capture immunoassay and microscopy techniques in detecting antigen and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and oocysts of Cryptosporidium respectively in fecal specimens of individuals in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria.

Methods: Wet preparation and formol ether concentration of fecal specimens were examined for cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and Modified Ziehl Neelson (MZN) stained fecal concentration were examined for oocysts of Cryptosporidium using microscope, then human Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica antigen capture immunoassay were also used for diagnosis of these parasites in the fecal specimens.

Results: Microscopic method detected 25 (15.6%) cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, and 42 (26.2%) of oocysts Cryptosporidium, while immunoassay method detected significantly higher values of 31 (19.4%) and 47 (29.4%) respectively. Microscopy cannot be used to differentiate pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from non-pathogenic Enatamoeba dispar which immunoassay method can do.

Conclusion: Antigen capture enzyme immunoassay method is a better tool in diagnosis of amoebiasis and cryptosporidiosis in rural communities, preventing unnecessary treatment of individuals harboring nonpathogenic amoeba species and higher detection of pathogenic species.