Open Access Case Study

Socioeconomic and Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis Infection in Riverine Areas of Ondo State, Nigeria

Akeju, Adebayo Victor, Ajayi, Oladimeji Joshua

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/43962

The prevalence and socioeconomic status of Urinary Schistosomiasis in the riverine areas of Ilaje Local Government in Ondo State, Nigeria was surveyed. This was done by examining people from five (5) selected villages in the area. A total of 2052 urine samples were collected and examined out of which 994 (representing 48.4% of the total population tested) were infected with Schistosoma haematobium parasite. The prevalence of infection was found to be high in Ode – mahin where 237 individuals were infected out of 454 examined; i.e. 52.2%, Ugbo – nla (49.9%), Orioke – Iwamimo (48.9%), Abe – Alala (45.9%), and the least was 44.5% from Maran. The overall prevalence of infection was significantly higher in males (553 infected cases out of 1030 examined. i.e. 53.7%) than in females (441 infected cases out of 1022 examined, representing 43.15%). Across different age groups (4-6; 7-9; and 10-12) the prevalence of infection was 39.2%, 53.8%, and 56.9% in males respectively.  For the females the highest infection case was found in the age group 10 – 12 (56.9%), the age group 13 – 15 has 50.5% while the least prevalence was found in 4 – 6 (39.2%). There was a significant difference between the male and the female susceptibility to schistosomiasis in the study area. Furthermore, this study also shows the influence of parental occupation on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the affected areas. Cases of infection were found to be higher amongst the children of fishermen when compared with those of other parental/father’s occupations. It is therefore recommended that more awareness program should be embarked upon especially in the rural communities on socioeconomic impact of schistomiasis. Periodic treatment regime should also be conducted in places where there is high prevalence of infection. 

Open Access Case Study

Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus among HIV Patients in Ikole Ekiti, Nigeria

Opaleye Oluyinka Oladele, Oluremi Adeolu Sunday, Akeem Akindele, Ojo Johnson, Odewale Gbolabo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2018/v33i120609

Background: Co-infection of HIV–positive patients with hepatitis C viruses worsens the long term diagnosis and causes of the liver related diseases in almost three –quarters of the HIV infected individuals.

Aim: This research was carried out to know the sero-epidemiology of HCV among HIV infected individuals in Ikole Ekiti South West Nigeria.

Place and Duration of the Study: The clinical data and samples were collected in Specialist Hospital, Ikole Ekiti, Nigeria between November, 2012 and April, 2013 and processed in Medical Microbiology Department, LAUTECH, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 158 HIV–infected patients comprising 40 males and 118 females with age range from 3-82 years participated in this study. The test was performed using anti HCV cassette (Clinotech) and later confirmed with Enzyme link immunosorbent Assay.

Results: Four (2.53%) out of 158 HIV infected patients had antibodies to HCV. Co-infection of hepatitis C is more in female 3(1.90%) than male 1(0.63%) subjects. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (p>0.05).Age group 31-40 years had the highest prevalence of HCV (50%) followed by age group 21-30 years (25%), 41-50 years (25%). There was no HIV-HCV coinfection among age group>50 years and <20 years. No significant difference was observed in association between age and prevalence of HCV antibodies (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Routine screening of patients with HIV infection for HCV antibodies should be encouraged for early diagnosis since research had shown that HIV-HCV co- infection can result: in higher levels of HCV in the blood, quick progression to HCV-related liver such cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trichomoniasis: The Most Neglected Infection among Women in Isoko South, Delta State Nigeria

E. E. Ito, J. C. Nmor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2018/v33i120593

Background: Trichomoniasis, an infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is among the most neglected sexually transmitted disease in the world and it affects the vagina, cervix, urethra and paraurethral glands as well as the bladder in women.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis as well as its risk factors in Isoko South and increasing the knowledge of the distribution pattern of the infection.

Materials and Methods: Vaginal swabs and mid-stream early morning urine were collected in universal screw-capped sterile bottles and Evepon swab sticks respectively from 841 women aged 11-50 years in the study area. These specimens were transported to the Tropical Disease Research Unit laboratory, Delta State University, Abraka for parasitological examination. 

Results: Of the 841 samples collected, 372 (44.23%) samples were infected with Trichomonas. Age-related prevalence of infection showed that respondents between aged 21-30 years had the highest (55.43%) prevalence while aged 41-50 years recorded the least prevalence of 31.52%. Based on sample type, Higher Vaginal Swab (HVS) specimen had the highest prevalence of 11.18% as against 4.04% recorded for urine specimen. Relative to pregnancy conception, infection rate of 282 (46.38%) was recorded for non-pregnant women while the pregnant women accounted for 90(38.63%) of the prevalence. Occupational-related prevalence of infection revealed that students between had the highest prevalence (18.07%) of infection followed by traders (10.58%) and farmers (8.20%) with the least prevalence (7.37%) being observed amongst the civil servants. Analysis of the data showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of infection between pregnant and non-pregnant respondents and between respondents of different occupational groups.

Conclusion: Combating trichomoniasis in Isoko South/Delta State requires strategies that target the individual, risk groups and the community and these must include integration of these strategies into national Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)/ Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) control programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Operation Assessment on Ambulance Services: A Case Study of Machakos County, Kenya

Wambura Francis Muchiri, Karanja Simon Muturi, Ngumo James Kariuki, Otundo Dennis Orare, Chimbevo Lenny Mwagandi, Muthuka John Kyalo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/41879

An efficient ambulance services is an integral component of EMS (Emergency Medical services). This paper attempts to establish a cost-efficient ambulance service appropriate for community critical care transport needs in Kenya on basis of data collected in Machakos County. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was conducted between January and May 2015.  Multistage sampling was carried out to recruit household’s respondents. The technical efficiency scores were computed using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Programme, version 2.1 (DEAP 2.1). The model was based on two inputs (cost incurred on vehicles and medical consumables) and one output (number of kilometres covered monthly by an ambulance). The household survey results demonstrated that all the residents (100%) were aware of free ambulatory services, 30-39 years 31.5% (95% CI ± 4.55) was the dominant population of which majority had 1- 3 children 66.3% (CI± 4.63). It was reported by the majority (78,3%) that the ambulance services were accessible, available and efficient to those who sought them. Between the periods starting March 2014 to May 2015, a total of 12,674 clients were transported by ambulances from the locations to various tires (levels) of hospitals, Majority 24.7% (95% CI; ± 0.75) were in need of emergency obstetric care (EMOC). The annual operational cost was Kshs. 70,328,627 ($717.639); staff salaries accounted for 49% (95% CI ±0.01) of operational cost, overheads costs at 33.5% (95% CI ±0.01) and 1.3% for renting equivalent operation space. The key demand factors were; social-cultural, health-seeking behaviours and political patronage while supply barriers were; transport costs, operational costs and in-efficient signage. Machakos County Government was operating at an average technical efficiency of 90.6% (95% CI ±7.9). In conclusion, Machakos County ambulance services were operating efficiently (technically).

Open Access Original Research Article

First Detection of Malaria in Dry Season in Dakar Senegal

Amadou Ndiaye, Gora Diop, Landing Sagna, Malick Diouf, Ngor Faye, Ibn Pape Ndiaye, Niama Diop Sall, Ben Sikina Toguebaye

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2018/v33i120606

Introduction: With 225 million people ill and 781,000 deaths in 2009, malaria remains the most important parasitic disease in the world.80% of cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Senegal, which is located in the high-risk area, devotes a lot of resources in the fight against this disease. This is in such context that we have carried out this retrospective study of malaria cases at ABASS NDAO Hospital (CHAN).

Materials and Methods: This study, involving 486 ​​patients, was conducted from January 2011 to June2011. Data on the sex of the patients were recorded. Screening methods used are thick film, blood smear and Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT).

Results: A total of 486 subjects were tested for malaria diagnosis and 33 patients were identified, only one case is due to the Plasmodium malariae, others are caused by the Plasmodium falciparum. The hospital prevalence of malaria according to this study is 6.79% (33/486). A significant monthly variation was observed for the number of cases: 17 cases in January, 4 cases in March, 1 case in April,1 in May and none in June. Both men and women are affected by malaria, but with a number of cases slightly higher among men: 19 malaria cases against 14 cases for women.

Conclusion: During period of low transmission (January-June) the prevalence of malaria in Dakar is high, caused by the Plasmodium falciparum. More effort should be made in the fight against this epidemic in urban and suburban areas.