Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Viral Infection among Pregnant Women Accessing Antenatal Care at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, South West, Uganda

Masajjage Derick, Kyeyune Lyavala Davis, Mubangizi Morris, Ogwang Samuel, Were Rebecca, Okongo Benson

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/44572

Aims: To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Antenatal clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, between April and July 2016.

Methodology: We included 160 pregnant women (age range 18-45 years). 4ml of blood samples were taken in EDTA tubes; plasma was separated and tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using the visual immunochromatographic HBsAg Card (Cypress Diagnostics). Positive samples with HBsAg were further retested using (Axysm immunochemical Technology) for hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg).

The Results: Out of the 160 participants, 4 (2.5%) tested positive for HBsAg and the prevalence by gravidity was highest in primigravida, 5.88% (n=51, p-value =0.28). The gestational age groups of 1-13 and 28-42 weeks had the highest prevalence 3.1% (p-value 0.05). The highest prevalence of HBsAg by age was seen in age groups 18-26 to 4.7% (n=84). All the HBsAg positive became HBeAg negative on ELISA technique. There was no association between history of surgery and HBV infection (Odds Ratio 2.03, p value= 0.54) similarly with the history of blood transfusion (Odds Ratio 0.66).

Conclusion: Despite the reported high prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women in other areas within the country, HBV prevalence was low in this study. Routine testing for HBV infection at all ante-natal care clinics countrywide is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Behavior of Jhum Cultivators Living in Chittagong Hill Tracts and Its Relation to Malaria in Bangladesh

Md. Shahidul Islam Laskar, Moktadir Kabir, Shamsun Naher, Keti Chakma, Md. Ashraf Siddiqui, Md. Akramul Islam

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/44257

Aims: Malaria is caused by invasion of hepatocytes and subsequent red blood cell infection by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the focal disease where children under five years are most vulnerable and susceptible to malaria. Concurrently, malaria is still occupational disease in Bangladesh especially among Jhum cultivators who depends mostly on the slash and burn activities during the rainy season mostly at hill districts. This study unveils the behavior of Jhum cultivators and its relation to malaria infection in Bangladesh. 

Study Design and Methodology: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for this study. A survey was done in 10 sub-districts of Chittagong Hill Tracts resulting 480 sample sizes considering high nonresponse rate in Chittagong Hill Tracts. A Focus Group Discussion was held in each sub-district to get in-depth view of Jhum cultivators related to malaria.

Results: In this study, total 386 (80.4%) people were Jhum cultivators followed by non- Jhum cultivators 94(19.6%). Jhum cultivators were 2.5 times of risk of malaria infection than other occupations (P-value = 0.046, CI =1.018-6.156). During their stay at Jhum sites, 54% of Jhum cultivators hang net in the evening and 44% of people did it during sleeping time. The most biting time at Jhum sites was 19.00-20.00 h (P-value = 0.011). The exposure of malaria was high when they came back home (70%) from Jhum sites than malaria being exposed at Jhum sites (27.4%). In logistic regression, distance (OR=1.20, P-value =0.000, CI=1.093-1.316) is most important factor while using of Long Lasing Insecticidal Nets at Jhum sites (OR=0.265, P-value =0.000, CI=0.162-0.431) the other notable factor behind infection of malaria in Bangladesh.

Conclusion: Malaria is still occupational disease especially among Jhum cultivators and needs to be taken a comprehensive awareness programme for using of LLIN at Jhum sites especially in19.00-20.00 hours.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants and Pattern of Anaemia in Pregnancy at Booking in Federal Medical Centre Owerri, South-East, Nigeria

O. M. Ojukwu, B. U. Ezem, E. A. Nzeribe, B. C. Okorochukwu, O. A. Onyegbule, N. U. Bamayi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/44496

Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia, the associated risk factors and the red cell morphological pattern among pregnant women at booking in Federal Medical Centre Owerri.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 400 women at the booking clinic over a 12-week period was done. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to obtain their biodata, obstetric and medical histories with the help of 2 trained assistants. The results of other routine antenatal investigations were obtained and filled on the questionnaire. The venous blood sample collected from each woman under aseptic condition was taken to the haematology laboratory where a full blood count was done with an ERMA PCE-210 auto haematology analyser to obtain the haemoglobin concentration and red cell indices of each woman. Also, a peripheral blood film was made from each sample for red cell morphology analysis using light microscopy. Data obtained was analysed with the IBM® SPSS® statistical package version 20.

Results: The mean haemoglobin concentration was 10.9 ± 1.5g/dl and 55.5% of all the women were anaemic (haemoglobin concentration < 11g/dl). Anaemia was significantly related to level of education (p = 0.02), low socioeconomic class (p =0.04), HIV-positive status (p =0.001), history of fever in the index pregnancy (p = 0.04), history of excessive menstrual flow prior to pregnancy (p = 0.002) but only history of anaemia in the last pregnancy (OR = 0.39; p = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.17 – 0.89) and HIV-positive status (OR = 0.12; p = 0.05; 95% CI = 0.02 – 0.99) were found to be independent determinants of anemia. The commonest red cell morphology on blood film was microcytosis and hypochromasia among the anaemic women suggesting iron deficiency anaemia.

Conclusion: Correction of anaemia and replenishment of iron stores should be ensured during postnatal and preconception care; Women need to be more economically empowered and advocacy for prevention and improved management of HIV among reproductive-aged women, early antenatal booking, proper management of febrile illnesses in pregnancy, and fortification of stable foods with iron.

Open Access Original Research Article

Episodic Diarrhoeal Diseases and Hygienic Practices among Caregivers of Under-fives Attending a Rural Health-centre in Anambra State, Nigeria

M. C. Ohamaeme, U. C. Anyanwagu, J. N. Egwurugwu, E. I. Dike, I. G. Eberendu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/45109

Background: Hand-washing, environmental sanitation and other hygienic practices are public health measures to prevent diarrhoea. This study assessed episodic diarrhoeal diseases and hygienic practices in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 232 consenting parents/ caregivers who attended Comprehensive Health Centre, Ukpo. The respondents were enrolled on each clinic day by exit interview in the selected facility, hence convenient sampling was done.  Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on the child`s socio-demographics, feeding pattern, episodes of diarrhoea in the last 24 months, as well as parents hand-washing techniques.

Results: Diarrhoea was commoner among those aged 0-12 months 157(77%). More males135 (58%) were affected. Pit toilet was the commonest form of sewage disposal 141(61%). Also, 188(81%) of the under-fives had <5 episodes of diarrhoea in 24 months as their parents practised good hygienic measures compared to 44(19%) who had >5episodes as a result of poor hygienic practices and this was statistically significant (p=0.023). Furthermore, 23(10%) of the under-fives whose parents practised good hand-washing techniques had 0-5 episodes of diarrhoea compared to 169(90%) of the same population who had 0-5 episodes in the last 24 months as a result of poor hand-washing. Results also showed that there was a 2.6-fold (aOR: 2.62, 95%CI: 1.11-6.19; p = 0.038) increased likelihood of having more than 5 episodes in children of parents with poor hygienic practices compared to those with better hygienic practices.

Conclusion: Diarrhoea was commoner in infants and may be as a result of poor hygienic practices among the caregivers. Improved hygienic practices are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological, Oxidative Stress and Histopathological Effects of Exposure of White Mice, Mus musculus to Petrol Generator Exhaust

H. E. Obanya, N. H. Amaeze, C. U. Okoroafor, O. Togunde

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/45309

This study evaluated the potential damage in vivo due to exposure to petrol generator exhaust fumes using White mice, Mus musculus. Four mice per group (experimental and control groups) were exposed to the exhaust fumes for 30 days. Weight changes, activity quotient and oxidative stress indicators (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT, reduced glutathione-GSH, glutathione-S-transferase-GST and malondialdehyde -MDA) were assessed for both groups. The results showed that there was no significant difference in activity quotient (P > 0.05) between both groups after the 30d study. The activities of the enzymes, GSH and GST, were inhibited (P < 0.05) and the level of MDA in the liver of the exposed mice increased significantly (P < 0.05) while those of SOD and CAT were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control. Various degrees of thickening of the alveolar septa and mononuclear inflammatory cells which were largely perivascular, peribronchiolar, and subpleural were the histological changes observed in the lungs of exposed mice. Hepatic tissue sections of the exposed mice also revealed some degree of pan lobular hepatocyte hyperplasia while the kidney sections showed a ghost outline of the tubule and glomeruli-acute cortical necrosis. The results indicated that the generator exhaust fumes had detrimental effects on the exposed mice, raising concerns regarding daily human exposures in cities like Lagos with a huge reliance on petrol generators. The need for improved provision of public electricity and adoption of cleaner household energy sources is advocated.