Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Prevalence and Associated Factors of under Nutrition among School Adolescents in Hawzen Woreda, Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Ashenafi Hailu Jufar, Alemayehu Hailu Jufar, Zewdu Jima Tekle

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/45282

Introduction: Adolescence is a period of rapid growth and maturation in human development that demands extra nutrients and energy to support growth. Due to increased nutritional requirement, poor dietary diversity and dietary inadequacies during the adolescent period, they are more vulnerable to under-nutrition. Focusing on adolescents’ nutrition, especially girls, provides a unique opportunity to break the intergenerational cycles of malnutrition

Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 398 school adolescents in Hawzen Woreda, Eastern Tigray northern Ethiopia. Study participants were selected by using systematic random sampling method from five schools. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaire. Beam balance and tap meter were used for anthropometric data. Entry and analysis of data were done by SPSS (version 20). WHO Anthro plus software was used to calculate body mass index for age and height for age. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the factors associated with under-nutrition.

Results: The result of this study showed that 32.2% of school adolescents were underweight, 0.3% and 33.2% were overweight and stunted respectively. The rate being underweight was higher in those adolescents born to illiterate fathers (AOR =1.94(1.19, 1.99)) family income less than 500 birr (AOR=1.37(1.23 - 7.32)) and large family size (> 4) (AOR=1.49(1.42 - 5.19)) . Adolescent born to illiterate mothers had 1.78 times chance of being underweight. The same variables had shown significant association with stunting. Adolescents who did not eat meat and other animal products had 2.3 times more chance of being stunted

Conclusion: The result of this study have shown strong relationship of both underweight and stunting with father's & mother's educational status, family income and size.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Age, Gender and Haemoglobin Variants on Glycated Haemoglobin

Taiwo Rachel Kotila, Mabel Ayebatonyo Charles-Davies, Felix Rotimi Afolabi, Jokotade Oluremilekun Adeleye, Matthew Ogunlakin, Funmilola Mapayi, Emmanuel Oluyemi Agbedana

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/45165

Aim: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is a useful screening, diagnostic and monitoring tool for diabetes. We present the effect of age, gender and haemoglobin variants on HbA1c in an African population with a high prevalence of sickle cell trait (SCT).

Study Design: An unmatched case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: This was carried out in the out-patient clinic of a tertiary hospital over a one-year period.

Methods: After an overnight fast, blood samples for haemoglobin fractions and HbA1c were measured in 99 individuals with T2DM and 105 apparently healthy controls using HPLC (BioRad, variant II).

Results: The age for cases and controls were 25-80yrs and 30-80yrs respectively, male:female ratio were 1:3 and 1:1.4 respectively. Women were seven times more likely to have diabetes in the sixth decade than men. SCT was found in 31% of T2DM women but only in 20% of men (P=.33). T2DM women had a higher HbA1c (58mmol/mol (7.5%) vs 48mmol/mol (6.5%) (P=0.1)). Healthy women also had a significantly higher HbA1c than men, 38 mmol/mol (5.6%) vs 32 mmol/mol (5.1%) (P=.007). HbA1c was consistently higher in individuals with sickle cell trait (HbAS) than those without the trait in both groups. HbA1c did not differ between age groups in T2DM F (4, 92) =2.62, P= .81 nor in controls F (4, 96) =2.06, P=.09. There appears to be a complex interaction between gender and age groups on HbA1c in both T2DM and healthy controls, but the interaction was more pronounced in the T2DM group. There was a stronger correlation between fasting plasma glucose and HbA1C which was stronger controls than the T2DM group ((r= 0.23, P=.02) vs (r=0.12, P=.25)).

Conclusion: The association between age, gender and SCT on HbA1c was more pronounced in women, this may be an interplay between socioeconomic, hormonal and genetic factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sexually Transmitted Infection Trends among Clinic Attendees of a Secondary Health Care Facility in Lagos, Nigeria: A 12-month Retrospective Review

Tinuade Adesola Ajani, Mustapha Akanji Ajani, Chinenye Anaedobe, Folake Olabode, Olufunmilayo Ibijoke Ajumobi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/45305

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major health problems and can have serious reproductive health consequences. Understanding the patterns of STI and their associated risk factors in a particular region is necessary for proper planning and implementation of targeted interventions.

Aims: To determine the pattern of STI and their associated risk factors in a secondary health facility in Lagos, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A hospital based, retrospective study of data collected from the clinical records of 31 patients who attended STI clinic of the General Hospital, Lagos over a period of 12 months. The diagnosis was made based on history, clinical examination and microbiological investigations. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 23.

Results: Gonococcal urethritis 8(25.8%) was the commonest STI followed by 7(22.6%) trichomoniasis, 6(19.4%) genital warts, 6(19.4%) herpes genitalis 3(9.7%) non-gonococcal urethritis and 1(3.2%) person had chancroid and was HIV positive. Majority of the patients had 26 (83.9%) multiple sex partners, 18(58.9%) never used condom and 17(54.8%) had previous history of STI. Occasional use of condom (X2 = 6.482, df = 1, P- value = 0.039) and previous history of STI (X 2 = 4.644, df= 1, P- value =0.031) were statistically associated with Gonococcal urethritis. Dyspareunia (X2 = 15.708, df =1, P- value =0.000) was also statistically associated with Trichomoniasis.

Conclusion: Bacterial STI still constitute a major burden of STI in our clinic which is contrary to the recent trends of viral STI constituting a major burden of STI in some parts of the world. Poor condom usage observed from this study might be partly responsible for it. Bearing in mind by Clinicians that bacterial STI is still rampant and Condom use promotion will go a long way to reduce the burden of STI in the community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria and Geohelminthiasis: Their Prevalence and Impact on Iron Stores Parameters of School Aged Children 5 to 10 Years in the Buea Municipality, Cameroon

Josiah Bimabam, Josephine Akpotuzor, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi, Nyingchu Robert, Ghogomu Stepen

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/45212

Aims: To determine the prevalence of malaria and geohelminthiasis and to assess their impact on iron stores of school children around Buea Municipality, Cameroon.

Study Design: It was a cross-sectional comparative study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out amongst primary school children in Buea Municipality, Cameroon, between the 1st of May to 27th of July 2015.

Methodology: We included 388 primary school children (188 males, 200 females; age range 5-10 years). Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic data and venepuncture technique was used to collect blood samples. Stool samples were collected in stool containers. Malaria prevalence, red cell indices and iron studies were determined using Giemsa-stained thin and thick films, automated haematology analyser and ELISA methods respectively. Quantitative estimation geohelminthe ova was done using the Kato-katz method. The participants were divided into different infectious groups.

Results: The overall prevalence of malaria and geohelminthiasis were 38.4%, 149 (95% CI: 33.2, 43.6) and 19.8%, 77 (95% CI: 15.8, 23.8) respectively. There was a significant increase in ferritin levels (P=.03) and soluble transferrin receptors (P<.001) in the infection groups when compared to the control group. Conversely, haemoglobin levels in the various infection groups were significantly reduced (P<.001) when compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Malaria and geohelminthiasis continues to infect school children with some of the iron store parameters being significantly raised across the various infection groups including malaria only and geohelminthiasis only groups, with haemoglobin levels significantly reduced when compared to the control group. Anaemia caused by malaria is as result of iron sequestration in the storage compartment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria Infection, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Persons Patronising Drugstores for Malaria Treatment in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

E. Augustine- D’Israel, A. E. Abah

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/44893

Objectives: The study aimed to assess Malaria infection, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) on malaria of persons patronising drugstores for malaria treatment in Port Harcourt and its environs in Rivers State, Nigeria.

Methods: Whole blood samples were collected from 663 participants by venepuncture from 24 randomly selected drugstores at three different locations and were analysed using established practice. Also, a semi structured questionnaire was also administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and the participants’ Knowledge, Attitude and practice (KAP) on malaria.

Results: Out of the 663 participants, 151 (22.8%) were positive for malaria. The occurrence of malaria in the study areas  were Mile 4 (Rumueme)  30.8%, Rumuosi 23.1% and D/line 14.5% which was significantly different (P = 0.001). More persons 458 (69.1%) between the ages of 25years and above participated in the study. Also, more males 357 (53.9%) than females 306 (46.2%) participated in the study. In all, 98.5% were aware of what malaria is and 89.4% knew that mosquito bite was responsible for malaria. On the whole, 97.1% of the respondents had a good knowledge of malaria. Overall, 97.7% of the participants showed a good attitude regarding malaria.  Approximately 84% of the participants had poor practice about malaria.

Conclusion: Malaria infection rate, Knowledge of and attitude to malaria were high but the practice was low in the study area. There is need to intensify efforts towards education of the people on the necessity of compliance to good practice  as that is the only way the war on malaria control can be effectively won.