Open Access Case Study

Case Review of Melioidosis in a Tertiary Care Centre from Northern Sri Lanka

Selladurai Pirasath, Jeebananthy Pradeepan, Thirunavukarasu Kumanan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/46361

Melioidosis is sporadically reported from various parts of Sri Lanka. It is a major recent endemic in Northern Sri Lanka. The causative organism Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative, oxidase positive bacillus. The first case of melioidosis was reported in a European tea broker in 1927 in Sri Lanka. We present a case series of seven patients of culture or serologically proven melioidosis from Northern Sri Lanka, highlighting the different clinical manifestations of the disease .Melioidosis had an array of clinical presentation involving multiple abscesses in the skin, liver, spleen, mediastinum and septic arthritis. It presented as either an acute fulminant septicemia with a high mortality or a chronic localized infection. Most cases had predisposing risk factors such as diabetes, chronic kidney disease and occupational risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Satisfaction with Waiting Time among Antenatal Women Attending the Antenatal Clinics of South East Nigeria

C. C. Ofoegbu, O. F. Emelumadu, C. C. Ifeadike, P. E. N. Onyemachi, F. S. F. Alyazidi, V. C. Analo, A. N. Onyeyili

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/46156

Background: Patient satisfaction is a useful measure to provide a direct indicator of quality in health care. Assessing patient perspectives gives them a voice, which can make public health services more responsive to people's needs and expectation.

Objective: To evaluate and compare the clients’ satisfaction with waiting time among pregnant women in public and private health facilities in south east Nigeria.

Study Design: A comparative cross sectional study was carried out.

Methodology: Using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire, information on clients’ satisfaction was obtained from 500 women attending antenatal care clinic in south east Nigeria.

Results: The mean ages of the public-teaching hospital respondents was 29.6 ± 4.0 and is slightly higher compared with that of private-mission hospitals respondents which was 29.5±4.6 Satisfaction was higher among the public-teaching hospital respondents (67.4%) than the private-mission hospital respondents (46.4%) and this is statistically significant. However, there is need to improve the waiting time in entirety considering only 59.8% of the whole study reported satisfaction.

Conclusion: There is low satisfaction with waiting time among antenatal mothers utilizing hospital services and dissatisfaction was more in private hospitals when compared to public hospital.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality and Antibiotic Residues in Raw Cow Milk at Producer Level and Milk Products at Sale Points in the Northern Region of Ghana

Gloria Ivy Mensah, Ezekiel Kofi Vicar, Patrick K. Feglo, Samuel E. K. Acquah, Courage S. K. Saba, Samuel Ofori Addo, Juventus B. Ziem, Kennedy Kwasi Addo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/46626

Objective: To evaluate the bacteriological quality of raw cow milk and milk products produced and retailed in the Northern Region of Ghana based on total bacteria and coliform count, prevalence of bacteria pathogens and antibiotic residues.

Methodology: A cross sectional study was designed where raw milk (n=210) and milk products (n=60) comprising (local milk and millet beverage) (burkina), cottage cheese (wagashi) and yoghurt were sampled from cattle kraals and retailers respectively.

Total viable bacterial counts (TVBC) and total coliform counts (TCC) were determined for all samples followed by isolation and identification of common milk-borne bacteria pathogens using normal laboratory identification systems. Antimicrobial residue in raw milk was detected using the Charm ® Blue-Yellow II Test for Beta-lactams and Other Antimicrobial Drugs in Milk.

Results: Mean total viable bacteria and coliform counts were (2.40±7.44) x107 and (1.10 ±1.53) x104 cfu/ml for raw milk and (8.99±2.24) x 106 and (6.62±9.54) x103 cfu/mlfor milk products respectively. Escherichia coli (15.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.8%), Mycobacterium species, (4.8%), Salmonella spp. (4.4%), Shigella spp. (2.6%), Escherichia. coli O157:H7 (1.9%) and Proteus spp. (1.5%) were isolated. Antibiotic residues above the EU maximum residue limit (MRL) were detected in 18.1% of raw milk samples.

Conclusion: The quality of raw milk sold in the northern region of Ghana is compromised by several bacteria pathogens and antibiotic residues at the farm level. This calls for continuous education on milk pasteurization, hygienic practices and proper antibiotic usage by herdsmen.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of the Effects of Insecticide-Treated Livestock Protective Fences (LPF) for Protecting Humans from Anthropophilic Mosquitoes and Malaria Transmission in a Suburb of Kumasi in the Forest Zone of Ghana

A. Abonuusum, K. Owusu-Daaku, A. Benjamin, B. Bauer, R. Garms, T. Kruppa

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/46829

Aim: The study investigated whether a 100 cm high livestock protective fence (LPF), effectively protects humans against anthropophilic mosquitoes and hence malaria.

Study Design: Four experimental segregated, half-roofed shelters with concrete floors, each measuring 6m x 7m, separated from each other by 500m, fenced by 100cm high chicken wire, one of them enclosed by an LPF, were used.

Place and Duration of Study: Work was done on Boadi Cattle Farm by Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana, for four weeks.

Methodology: Human landing catches of mosquitoes were conducted twice a week. Two groups of two mosquito collectors worked at each of the four shelters during the same night; one group collected from 1800h to midnight, the second group from midnight to 0600h. One collector collected inside as the other collected outside at a distance of about 20m.

Results: Altogether 6118 mosquitoes were collected, of which 773 Anopheles gambiae, 11 A. funestus, 874 A. ziemanni and 4460 Culicinae. There were insignificant (P = 0.30) and significant (P = 0.0003) decreases in numbers of A. ziemanni and culicines entering the shelters with LPF respectively. However, significantly more A. gambiae entered the LPF fenced shelters than in unfenced shelters (P = 0.0008). A variation of hourly biting activities of A. gambiae with a peak between 0100 and 0400 at Boadi and between 1100 and 0300 at two sites at Anwomaso, was observed. Plasmodium falciparum infections were detected in only 1% of A. gambiae but not in A. ziemanni. All 47 A. gambiae s.l. randomly selected and tested using Polymerase Chain Reaction were identified as A. gambiae s.s.

Conclusion: LPF protects humans against some mosquitoes but not the malaria vector, A. gambiae.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus Colonization amongst Medical Students of Igbinedion University Okada

P. O. Solomon, H. O. Okpala, B. H. Oladeinde, Missan Olley, K. O. Okon

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/46076

Background: Epidemiological data of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence among students is relatively few. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of S. Aureus and MRSA nasal colonization among healthy students.

Method: One hundred and twenty nasal samples were collected from healthy students without symptoms of nasal infections and analysed by standard microbiological techniques. A study questionnaire was administered comprising the demographic information of each student.

Results: Of the 120  nasal specimens, S. aureus was isolated in 80 (66.6%) with high colonization rate among Medical Laboratory Science students and 39 (48.8%) identified as MRSA with colonization rate found to be higher among medical laboratory science students (Medical Laboratory Science vs Pharmacy: 76.9% VS. 23.1%) and females found to have a higher prevalence of MRSA than males (female vs  male: 64.1% vs. 35.9%) and Students within the age group of 18-20 years had the highest prevalence of MRSA of 76.9%. S. aureus in this study was observed to be most susceptible to amoxicillin (81.5%) and least susceptible to Ceftazidime (6.2%).

Conclusion: The study revealed high MRSA colonization among students. Personal hygiene and prudent use of antibiotics should be encouraged. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the findings.