Open Access Case Study

Appendicular Schistosomiasis in a Nigerian Woman

Abiodun, Afolabi Benjamin, Momoh, Martins Osadolor, Abiodun, Adejoke Deborah

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2018/v34i330096

Aim: Schistosomiasis is a water-borne trematode infestation and is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosomiasis can affect any organ. This case report highlights the importance of awareness of unusual cause of common surgical presentations of schisto-somiasis in endemic areas and the need for appendectomy specimens to be sent for histological review so that patients can benefit from full investigations and specific antiparasitic treatment.

Case Presentation: In this paper, the authors present a case of appendicular schistosomiasis that was incidentally discovered in a 33-year-old female patient from Lagos, Nigeria who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Appendectomy specimens removed from the patient appeared macroscopically normal but histopathological analysis revealed schistosomal eggs confirming the diagnosis of appendicular schistosomiasis.

Discussion: Confirmation of appendicular schistosomiasis is a purely histological diagnosis, because there are no pathognomonic clinical or operative findings. Physicians practising in the endemic areas must be aware of the possibility of seeing atypical presentations of parasitic diseases.

Conclusion: The authors therefore strongly recommend that all appendectomy specimens should be sent for histological review so that patients can benefit from full investigations and specific anti-parasitic treatment.

Open Access Opinion Article

Understanding the Nigerian Healthcare Delivery System: A Paradox of Preventive Medicine Since the Colonial Epoch

Iroju Opeyemi Anthony

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2018/v34i330094

No human society is mundane to healthcare delivery method. Apparently, the process of healthcare delivery depicts the extent of the social development of a particular society. However, the healthcare delivery process in Nigeria from the colonial era attained a new paradigm by shifting from the practice of traditional medicine to the western styled patterns. Since the colonial Nigeria, both the traditional and western medicine has been dependable sources of preventive medicine for the Nigeria populace. In spite of the outright condemnation of the traditional healthcare practices, it received unbridled patronage by a larger Nigeria populace, thus the post-independence Nigeria witnessed a paradox of health care delivery.

Aim: This paper aims to provide an understanding on the revolutions in the healthcare delivery system in Nigeria since the colonial period.

Methodology: An extensive review of literature was carried out to elicit information on the Nigerian healthcare delivery since the colonial period.

Results: The study revealed that the Nigerian healthcare delivery system is characterized by high cost. The study also showed that Nigeria has been witnessing inequitable distribution of healthcare facilities since the colonial period.

Conclusion: The healthcare delivery system in Nigeria is not a colonial invention but the advent of the colonial masters brought about an outstanding transformation in the healthcare delivery process of most Nigerian societies. Thus, the practice of preventive medicine is indigenous to the Nigerian people.

Open Access Short Communication

In vitro Cercaricidal Activity of Fractions and Isolated Compounds of Erythrophleum ivorense (Fabaceae) Root Bark against Schistosoma haematobium

Francis A. Armah, Benjamin Amoani, Isaac T. Henneh, Rita A. Dickson, Christian K. Adokoh, Isaac K. Amponsah, Cecilia Adu-Gyamfi, Desmond O. Acheampong

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2018/v34i330093

Introduction: Schistosoma haematobium is one of the species of Schistosoma responsible for schistosomiasis in humans, a major public health problem worldwide. Praziquantel, the most effective drug against all adult stages of human schistosomiasis, faces the threat of resistance and also has sub-optimal efficacy against cercaria, an immature form of schistosomiasis. This underscores the need to search for an alternative anti-schistosomal drug with pronounced activity particularly against cercaria.

Aim: This study investigated anti-cercarial activity of total crude (70% ethanolic extract), fractions (methanolic, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether) and isolated bioactive compounds from the root bark of Erythrophleum ivorense.

Study Design: In vitro anti-cercarial activity was evaluated using 20 freshly shed cercariae from Schistosoma haematobium species transferred into 20 well plates. Cercaricidal effect of the various concentrations (15.6, 31.3, 62.5, 125.0, 250.0 and 500.0 µg/mL) of test extracts and compounds were observed for 3 hours using an inverted microscopy. The results showed that extracts and compounds of the plant decreased percentage viability of cercariae in a dose-dependent manner.

Results: Within two hours of incubation, all cercariae died at the various concentrations of test compounds and extracts with the exception of methanol extract and the bioactive compound erythroivorensin at 15.6

Open Access Original Research Article

Compliance with Use of Micronutrient Powder among Caregivers of Children Aged 6-23 Months in a District of a State in North East Nigeria

Adewale M. Adejugbagbe, Akinola A. Fatiregun, Elvis E. Isere, Olubunmi Oki Adewale

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2018/v34i330095

Aims: To assess the knowledge and perception about micronutrient powder (MNP) use, compliance with use of the product, and determine factors influencing compliance to continual use of MNP for food fortification among caregivers of children aged 6-23 months in Konduga LGA, Borno State, Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Konduga LGA, Borno State Nigeria in August 2018.

Methodology: A total of 218 caregivers of children aged 6-23 months were selected using a multistage sampling technique. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to interview respondents on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about complementary feeding, perception about MNP use and compliance with use of MNP for food fortification. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression, with the level of significance set at 0.05.

Results: Respondents were female with 111 (50.9%) below 30 years of age (mean age: 29.3±8.0). Twenty-four (11%) of the respondents have good knowledge of complementary feeding and 77 (35.3%) have a good perception of the use of MNP. Almost two-thirds [135 (61.9%)] of the respondents used MNP. Factors that influenced respondents’ compliance with use of MNP include; being <30 years of age (P= .04), having a spouse with formal education (P= .003) and is not working (P= .013) and having good knowledge of complementary feeding (P= .01). Among these factors, having a spouse that is not working determined compliance with use of MNP (AOR=3.3, 95% CI= 1.6-7.5).

Conclusion: Although compliance with use of MNP was above average, however, there is need to improve on Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) counselling focusing on the importance of MNP particularly among the older caregivers and their spouse.

Open Access Review Article

The Epidemiology of Dengue Fever with Special Reference to Malaysia- Emphasizing Prevention and Control

A. M. Meer Ahmad, C. A. Koay

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2018/v34i330098

Introduction: Dengue is the most prevalent viral mosquito-borne disease, with over 2.5 billion humans at risk given its endemicity in not less than 100 countries.

Globally, 50-100 million cases of dengue is seen annually, with approximately 0.7% resulting in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), and 22,000 deaths.

In 2017, there were 83,849 reported cases of dengue fever in endemic under-reported Malaysia, with 177 deaths.

Method: The Authors here narrate from their own personal-experiences, besides reviewing existing-literature.

Results and Conclusion: Prevention and Control methods have been desiring of greater achievements, but also show greater promise with Newer Insecticides, Innovative Methods and Vaccines. Dengue Fever would very likely become near-eradicated just like all other vaccine-preventable diseases, once comprehensive mass-vaccination programs are available globally, using safe and very-effective tetravalent-vaccines soon to be available.