Open Access Short Research Article
Aims/Objectives: To screen the prevalence of Salmonella fecal carriage among healthy foodhandlers and to identify the common species of Salmonella among study population and its antibacterial susceptibility in Khartoum state by taking stool samples.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Khartoum state, Sudan, from January 2009 to December 2009.
Methodology: Stool samples were collected, processed and cultured on suitable bacterial culture media. Presence of colonies resembling (non-lactose fermenting) Salmonella species were further studied to identify the bacterium by using appropriate biochemical tests.Confirmation and serotyping of isolates were done by using Salmonella antisera. Antibacterial susceptibility test for common antibacterial drugs were also studied.
Results: A total of 387 stool samples collected from apparently healthy food handlers werestudied. Salmonella fecal carriage among food handlers was 17 (4.4%) and the highest prevalence was noted in Umbada locality (5.1%). Salmonella Paratyphi B was the commonest 14 (3.6%), followed by Salmonella Typhi 2(0.5%) and Salmonella Cholerasuis 1 (0.3%). Our study revealed that 141 (36.4%) of food handlers were illiterate, 29 (7.5%) werepreschool, 134 (34.6%) were elementary school graduates 68 (17.6%) and 15 (3.9%) university graduates. Forty two (10.9%) of the studied cases mentioned that, they sometimes wash their hands by soap after defecation, while, 9 (2.3%) never washed theirhands. The study also, revealed that 3 (17.6%) of positive food handlers have had history ofprevious typhoid or gastroenteritis. The study demonstrated that Salmonella species isolated were sensitive to co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and cefuroxime.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated the presence of considerable number of Salmonella fecal carriage among food handlers in Khartoum state. Most of them were illiterate and had poor compliance of hand washing after toilet use. Study also revealed that isolated Salmonella species were highly susceptibility to the common first line antibiotics used in Sudan.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: This study aimed to compare the prevalence of P. falciparum gametocyte carriage in two sympatric ethnic groups living in seasonal malaria transmission setting in Burkina Faso.
Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September to November 2017 in children aged from 2 to 12 years and living in Barkoundouba, avillage located at the Northeast part of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso. The study participants were subject to clinical examination including axillary temperature. Blood samples were collected from finger pricks to performed RDT and blood smears for malaria diagnosis and on filter paper for molecular detection of the parasite. Any case of fever (temperature ≥ 37.5°C) with RDT positive was treated according to national guideline.
Methodology: We included 461 patients in this study. P. falciparum presence and densities were determined by microscopy using Giemsa-stained thick blood smears. The nested PCR was used to confirm the presence of the asexual parasites assessed by the microscopy.
Results: P. falciparum prevalence assessed by microscopy was 83 (32.55%) and 103 (50%) for Fulani and Mossi respectively, whereas the prevalence by nested PCR was 88 (39.11%) for Fulani and 121 (68.75%) for Mossi. The gametocyte carriage in the two ethnic groups was: 3.53% for Fulani and 11.65% for Mossi. The prevalence ratio for P. falciparum asymptomatic and gametocyte carriers was 1.5 and 3 in favor of Mossi group respectively.
Conclusion: This study showed that the Fulani have a lower prevalence of P. falciparum compared to the Mossi group despite the decrease of parasitemia and prevalence in both groups compared to previous studies.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: This study was aimed at assessing disease morbidity pattern and health care seeking behaviour among the elderly in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria.
Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study design
Place and Duration of Study: Calabar Municipal Local Government Area, Cross River State between Feburary 2015 to March 2015.
Methodology: Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 200 elderly persons who gave consent to participate in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Data collected were collated and analysed using IBM SPSS version 20.0 and results were presented in tables. Chi-square was used to test for association between categorical variables.
Results: The result obtained showed that respondents within the age bracket of 65-69years 74(37.0%) constituted majority followed by those aged 70-74years 56(28.0%) and 75-79years 42(21.0%). More than half of the respondents 110(55%) were females while the remaining 90(45%) were males. This study revealed that malaria 50(23.1%), high blood pressure 43(19.9%) and joint pain/arthritis 31(14.4%) were the most identified health problems suffered by the elderly and the hospital/healthcare centre was where most elderly persons sought for treatment whenever they fall ill. Expenditure on health services received was largely out-of-pocket expenditure 86(43.0%). Other respondents revealed that their children 64(32.0%), relatives/in-laws 28(14.0%), spouse 16(8.0%) and friend(s) 6(3.0%) were responsible for their hospital bills. Most respondents 106(53.0%) who patronized the hospital/health center were satisfied with treatment received. Increasing age and gender were significantly associated with disease morbidity pattern among the elderly (P < .05).
Conclusion: Improving geriatrics care through effective implementation of intervention programmes is pivotal to mitigating the rate of disease morbidity among the aged population.
Open Access Original Research Article
Objectives of the Study: An Epidemiological Research, a cross-sectional study, was conducted to determine the magnitude of human contamination of irrigation canal perimeter as it relates to the prevalence and intensity of schistosome cercarial infection in snail vectors.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted along water canal located within an irrigation area, Kano River Project Phase I, Kadawa, between January and June, 2012.
Methodology: The study area was categorized into Zone of Heavy Contamination (ZHC), Zone of Light Contamination (ZLC) and Zone of Free Contamination (ZFC) based on the density of faecal lumps observed along the canal perimeter using 1 m2 quadrat sampling technique. Snail vectors of schistosomiasis were collected from these zones, identified and subjected to cercarial shedding. Brevifurcate apharyngeate cercariae were identified as schistosome cercariae.
Results: Of the 827 snails collected 28.54% shed schistosome cercariae. The breakdown of infection prevalence was 31.37%, 27.69% and 26.26% for ZHC, ZLC and ZFC respectively. Three snail species recovered in the study area, Bulinus globosus, B. rohlfsi and Biomphalaria pfeifferi had infection intensity of 8.6, 5.67 and 3.94 respectively, with total mean intensity of 4.67. A Chi-squared analysis did not show any significant difference in infection prevalence in the three zones (χ2cal. 0.025, χ22, 0.05 = 5.99). However, infection intensity was significantly different in the three zones and among the three snail species using analysis of variance (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Human environmental contamination with faeces and urine around irrigation canals remains the source of infection to snail hosts and then to humans. It is presumed that contact control through avoidance of defaecation in the open and building of pit latrines near water contact points along irrigation canals will be effective means of drawing a barrier to infection with schistosomes in the study area.