Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Model for Pediatrics Patients with Leprosy Infection

Bukola Badeji–Ajisafe, Ajibade Idowu Victor, Ajibade Abimbola Omotola

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i130153

Leprosy Infection (LI) is a long-term chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis. This infectious disease has caused the public issue in many countries around the globe. The disease is prevalent among the adults, although there are now cases of the minor contacting this disease through household contact which is the primary source of infection such as (babysitters, neighbors). The emerging and reemerging diseases have led to a revived interest in infectious diseases in which mathematical models have become important tools in analyzing the spread and control of infectious diseases. Mathematical models are used in comparing, planning, implementing, evaluating and optimizing various detection, prevention therapy, and control programs, the model provides conceptual results such as threshold and basic reproduction number. In this paper, the Passive Immunity Pediatrics (M) - susceptible- Exposed-infected-recovered-susceptible (MSEIRS) model was adopted to depict the spread of infections in our environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Knowledge and Practice among Patients with Non-communicable Diseases Attending Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Eastern Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study

Esther Nambala, Jayne Byakika-Tusiime, Yahaya Gavamukulya

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i130154

Aim: To determine nutritional knowledge and practices among patients with Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) attending Mbale Regional Referral hospital, in Eastern Uganda.

Study Design: A mixed methods cross sectional study design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Mbale Regional Referral Hospital among patients attending the NCD clinic from May to July 2017.

Methodology: Two hundred sixty clients were recruited for the study. Quantitative data was collected through structured administered questionnaires. Quantitative data was analyzed at univariate, bivariate and multivariate levels. Chi square test and logistic regression were used to determine the association between nutrition knowledge and utilization. Qualitative data was coded first and summarized according to the themes.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 55 years (SD= 14) and hospital was the main source of nutrition information (n=156, 60%). Most respondents (n=156, 60%) had a high level of nutrition knowledge, however only 48.8% (n=127) were utilizing the knowledge. Those who had attained secondary level of education were 2.308 more likely to utilize the nutrition knowledge than those who had never studied P value of .028, 95CI (1.093-4.874). Those with tertiary education were even 9.261 times more likely to utilize the knowledge P value <.001 95CI (2.721-31.522). Those with adequate knowledge were about 1.6 times most likely to utilize the nutrition knowledge compared to those with inadequate knowledge level, however, with the adjusted odd ratio of 1.573 at 95% CI (0.923- 2.868) the results were not statistically significant (P value .098).

Conclusion: NCD patients had adequate knowledge, with a few of them utilizing the knowledge. High education level was associated with better nutrition practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Selected Health Facilities in Southwest Region of Cameroon

Livinus Chanyi, Rene Nkenyi, Mathias Esum

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i130155

Background: Gonorrhoea and Syphilis are common STIs, particularly among the reproductive age group in most developing countries. Their control is important considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and their socioeconomic impact and a means of effecting control measures against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).  Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors of these infections in a student residential area will enable development of better strategies for STI control.

Methods: A health facility based historical study design was conducted where laboratory records of patients screened for Syphilis and/or Gonorrhea and HIV in selected Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities in Buea Health District (BHD) between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Data analysis was done using EPI Info version 3.5.4. with a level of error set at 5%.

Results: A total of 1106 records were reviewed. Majority 472(42.7%) were between 21-30 years old, while 923(83.4%) were females. A significant proportion 78 (8.1%) were HIV positive.  The prevalence of the both STIs was highest in 2015. The prevalence of gonorrhoea was 12.9% and that of syphilis was 16.9%. The odds of testing positive for syphilis for female compared to males was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.18-0.62); p-value of 0.001, while that for gonorrhoea was 0.22 (95%CI: 0.11, 0.44); p-value of 0.0001. Patients between 21 and 30 years were 2.46 times as likely to be syphilis positive compared to those below 21. Compared to those tested positive, patients who were negative for were 3.33 (95%CI 1.66-6.69) times as likely to test negative for HIV (p value of 0.001).

Conclusion: The study revealed a high prevalence of gonorrhoea and syphilis. Although these infections have similar risk factors, there are distributed differently in the sexually active student residential area. This thus calls for the implementation of targeted screening and to revise control measures for STIs in the population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Antiplasmodial (curative) Activities of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Morinda lucida (Ewe Oruwo) in Male Swiss Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65

Momoh Johnson Oshiobugie, Damazio Olanrewaju Anthony, Ajetunmobi Asibiallau Oladipupo, Babalola Adenike Omosalewa, Adekunle Oluwasegun Michael, Busari Nafeesat Olabisi, Musa Abdullahi Aiyegbeni

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i130156

Aim: Medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of many infections and diseases including malaria. The study was conducted to determine the effect of in vivo anti-plasmodial and antioxidant properties of the methanolic leaf extract of Morinda lucida in male Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium Berghei NK65.

Study Design and Methodology: Phytochemical, GC-MS and AAS analyses were determined in the plant. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with Plasmodium berghei NK65. Thirty-five (35) mice were grouped into seven groups, five per group. Group A were not infected with P.berghei NK65. Group B, C and D served as the negative and positive control groups while Group E, F and G mice were treated with 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg body weight of methanolic leaf extract of M. lucida. Haematological parameters were determined in the whole blood using BC-3200 Auto Hematology Analyzer. TP, MDA, CAT, SOD % inhibition, SOD unit and vitamin A were all determined in the liver homogenate using standard procedures.

Results: The GC-MS result of the M. lucida shows the presence of five bioactive compounds. It was also observed that the plant contains the following minerals: iron, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and copper. Acute toxicity shows that the LD50 >000mg/Kg b.wt. The extract caused 30.96%, 32.93% and 67.23% reduction in parasitemia at 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg body weight respectively while chloroquine exerted 96.53% and artesunate exerted 92.03% reduction at 10 mg/kg body weight respectively. The Haematological parameters showed that the plant extract is not haematotoxic since it significantly (P<0.05) reduced WBC count, and increase RBC, HGB, and HCT values in the treated mice compared to the infected untreated mice. This study shows that the mean lipid peroxidation (MDA) level was significantly decreased in the malaria treated mice (group C, D, E, F and G) compared to the untreated mice (group B). There was also a significant increase in the total protein, catalase, SOD % inhibition, SOD unit and Vitamin A levels in the liver homogenate of animals treated with chloroquine, artesunate and extract of M. lucida compared to the untreated mice.

Conclusions: The study shows that Morinda lucida possess antiplasmodial activity in male Swiss mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Benign Breast Lesions, Epithelial Proliferations with or without Atypia in Calabar-A Retrospective Review

G. A. Ebughe, T. I. Ugbem, D. E. Ushie, S. Effewongbe, J. E. Udosen, M. S. Umoh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i130157

Aims: The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence of benign breast lesions and proliferative lesions which are associated with increase risk of breast cancer. This is aimed at influencing the hospital policy on mammographic screening.

Study Design: Descriptive retrospective study involving a trend analysis of benign breast lesion, proliferative analysed in the surgical pathology unit of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital between 1st of January 2012 to October 31st 2014.

Place and Duration of Study: Pathology Department of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital. The study was carried out between March and April 2019.

Methodology: Descriptive retrospective study of trend analysis of benign and proliferative breast lesions over the period with literature review.

Results: Two hundred and seventeen 217 patients consisting of seven males and two hundred and ten females with a female: Male ratio of 1:0.04. Mean age was 26.4 ± 10.0 years, ranging from 10 to 70 years, with 21-30 (94, 43.5%), as the predominant age and less than 21 years (70, 32.4%) as the second common age group. Seventy four percent of (74%) of the breast lesions were benign non proliferative lesions while 26% were proliferative breast lesions. Of the proliferative lesions, five or 8.9% of the proliferative or 2.33% of the lesions were atypical ductal hyperplasia’s which have a high risk of progression to cancer.

Conclusion: Proliferative breast lesions and the premalignant lesions of the breast are not commonly reported in Calabar. An upscale of population screening and mammographic services may improve their yield which will help prevent some invasive breast cancers.