Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Anti-tuberculosis Drugs on Patients with Multi-drug Resistance Tuberculosis in Mainland Hospital Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Gideon I. A. Okoroiwu, Gloria I. Onokpise

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i230158

Introduction: The occurrence of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients has raised global public health concern, especially in Nigeria. The increase in the number of cases of resistance tuberculosis despite the effort and need to curb the menace in Nigeria led to this study.   

Aim of the Study: The aim was to investigate the effect of anti-Tuberculosis drugs on patients with multi-drug resistance Tuberculosis in Mainland Hospital Yaba, Lagos.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of the already confirmed multi-drug resistance tuberculosis patients at the Mainland Hospital Yaba, Lagos .One hundred self-structured interview questionnaires were randomly administered among already confirmed mult-drug resistance tuberculosis patients at the hospital to collect bio-data information, and thereafter, received second- line anti-Tuberculosis drugs in phases for 22 months.

Results and Discussion: The patients received the following regimen of treatments based on their weights and ages, the selected regimens administered for 22 months comprised of two phases; first, 8 months of intensive phase of Kanamycin, levofloxacin, cycloserine, prothionamide,and pyrazinamide and second, 12 months of Levofloxacin, cycloserine, prothionamide and pyrazinamide. Post laboratory analysis was used to monitor the effectiveness of the second-line anti-Tuberculosis drugs used. Out of the 92 patients that received the drugs, 89(96.7%) were confirmed negative to multi-drug resistance tuberculosis, while 3(3.3%) were still positive.

Conclusion: The anti-Tuberculosis drugs in the order used is highly recommended for the reduction if not total eradication of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis in Nigeria. Effort should be geared towards making sure that the multi-drug resistance tuberculosis patients are confined, proper regimen administered and monitored in order to reduce the rate of spread.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Depiction of Malariometric Indices in Children under Five Years in a Sudanese Semi-urban Area of Burkina Faso

San M. Ouattara, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Alfred B. Tiono, Benjamin Sombié, Amidou Diarra, Issa N. Ouédraogo, Michel Vaillant, Sodiomon B. Sirima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i230159

Aims: Malariometric indices are essential for the assessment of both new therapies and control strategies. As part of the characterization of a new malaria clinical trial site, this study was carried out to assess malariometric indices during the two seasons of a Sudanese area of Burkina Faso, in children aged under five years.

Study Design: Two community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted as follow: the first during the rainy season of 2009 and the second during the following dry season. Socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. A finger prick blood sample was collected to perform malaria blood films and to measure the hemoglobin level.

Results: Malaria parasitemia prevalence was 55.2% (N = 677) in the rainy season with a geometric mean of parasite density (GMPD) of 3439 trophozoites/µl against 23.3% (N = 720) in the dry season with a GMPD of 1368 trophozoites/µl. Gametocytemia prevalence was 21.7% and 6.5% respectively in rainy and dry season while splenomegaly prevalence was 11.2% (N = 689) in rainy season against 4.2% (N = 752) in dry season. The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11.0 g/dl) was 90.0% in rainy season and 70.6% in dry season. All indices in rainy season were statistically higher than those in dry season (p-value < 0.0001). The odds of parasite carriage were 3 to 5 times higher in rainy season compared to dry season (95% CI for OR = [3.1, 5.0]).

Conclusion: The site is located in a seasonal hyper-endemic malaria area and seems appropriate for the conduct of malaria drugs or vaccines studies. Though the gap between seasons is considerable, the residual level of parasite carriage during low transmission period is not negligible and may command the development of strategies targeting this specific period, to break the chain of transmission of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated to the Non-adherence to Vaccination Appointments in the Ngambe Health District, Littoral Region, Cameroon: A Case Control Study

Rene Nkenyi, Daniel Telep, Lucy Ndip, Dickson Nsagha

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i230161

Background: Vaccination is what is strongly recommended in protecting against childhood diseases. The Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in Cameroon started in 1976 as a pilot project and became operational all over the country in 1982 where vaccination is seen a fundamental right of every child in the country. However, rural areas have lots of constrains to the effective implementation of vaccination programs some of which are population-related.

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the association between some factors and adherence to vaccination appointments in Ngambe Health District; a typical rural health district in Cameroon.

Methods: This was a case control study where the vaccination records of health facilities in the district were reviewed and parents who respected their vaccination appointments formed the controls while those who missed a vaccination appointment were the cases. They were then traced for interviewed and data analyzed using Epi infos version 3.5.4.

Results: Out of 94 parents, 37.2% had missed a vaccination appointment. In parents older than 36, the odds of missing an appointment was 11 (95%CI 3.69-34.43) while those with <4 children were 0.10 less likely to miss an appointment (95%CI 0.04-0.28). Parent’s education, household size and ANC attendance also influenced adherence to vaccination appointments. After adjustment, only age and whether or not child was born in the hospital remained statistically significant associated with adherence.

Conclusion: User related factors influence uptake of vaccination services in the Ngambe Health District of Cameroon; a rural area, some of which are age of the parents, number of children the parent has and the total household size. Therefore, adding to the availability of vaccines, a high-level political commitment aimed at increasing utilization of health services and effectively taking vaccination to the population are indispensable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of a Community Diagnosis Survey Approach to the Assessment of Adolescent Health at Korle Worko, Accra, Ghana

Edem M. A. Tette, Elom Yarney, Simon Aluze-Ele, Michael Adomako, Alex Barimah Owusu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i230162

Background: Adolescent health has assumed greater significance globally since adolescents bear a considerable proportion of the global disease and injury burden. Thus investing in their health can yield substantial benefit. Community surveys are useful tools for identifying the needs of adolescents and promoting their health.

Objective: This study was part of a medical education programme with the objective of identifying health and social problems of adolescents living in Korle Worko, a suburb of Accra, Ghana.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 using structured questionnaires which were administered to 729 heads of households and 228 adolescents. Weight and height measurements were performed on the adolescents, while key informant interviews were also conducted among community elders and adolescents. Community mapping and pair-wise matrix construction were done. The data was summarized using SPSS and Geographic Information Systems.

Results: The most commonly reported health complaints of adolescents were stomach ache, common cold, skin rashes, sadness or crying a lot, lack of concentration and hearing problems or earache.  Asthma was the most common chronic diseases reported. Whereas 22.7% of the females were either overweight or obese, 7.4% of the males were overweight or obese and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.002). The spatial pattern of alcohol use correlates with drug abuse, suggesting that adolescent risky behaviour may be influenced by antisocial behaviour in the community at large.

Conclusion: Over-nutrition, under-nutrition, abdominal, respiratory and mental health problems were prominent findings in this study. Therefore, adolescent health services should target these diseases.  Additionally, efforts at preventing lifestyle related risk factors should also target the areas of influence within the community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients of Psychiatric Hospital Rumuigbo, Rivers State, Nigeria

N. C. Eze, A. E. Abah, D. O. Ezeoru

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i230163

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections  among patients of psychiatric hospital Rumuigbo, Rivers State, Nigeria between June to September, 2017. Stool specimen were collected and analyzed from 203 patients for ova, larvae or cysts of intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques. Of these, 78 (38.4%) were infected. Five parasitic infections were identified of which Ascaris lumbricoides had the highest prevalence (39.7%). Others included hookworm (8.4%), T.trichuria (4.4%) and 2 protozoans: Entamoeba histolytica (7.4%) and G. lamblia (3.0%). The occurrence of these parasites varied significantly (p< 0.05). Patients suffering from Schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of infection 33 (78.6%) followed by patients with Substance Abuse Disorder 11(37.9%), while the least prevalence was found among patients suffering from Anxiety disorder. Parasitic infection was most frequent among patients aged 18-27 years and higher among males 45 (47.9%) than the females 33 (30.3%).Prevalence of these parasitic infections varied significantly among sexes and age groups. This study has documented a higher prevalence of intestinal parasite amongst the mentally challenged in our society, re-emphasizing the need for intermittent de-worming among all the patients.