Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria Vector Abundance and the Incidence of Malaria Parasite amongst Students Living in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Hostels

Ebuka Kingsley Ezihe, Egbuche Chukwudi Micheal, N. Nwankwo Edith, Ukonze Chikaodili, Anumba Joseph Uche, Umenzekwe Chukwudi Christian, Ogudu Ogbonnia Emmanuel

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i430169

Introduction: Malaria remains an important public health disease in both tropical and subtropical countries of Africa where transmission is mainly through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito.

Aim: The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite and the abundance of malaria vectors in and around the university hostels. 

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in some selected hostels of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, from the month of March to September, 2018.

Methodology: One hundred and fifty (150) students which volunteered from the selected hostels were tested for malaria parasite. Questionnaire on the frequency of clinical symptoms were distributed to these students. Indoor resting mosquitoes were collected through pyrethrum spray-sheet collection (PSC).Larval sampling was carried out for the immature stages of mosquitoes.

Results: Of the students examined for malaria parasite, 135 (90%) showed positivity to the parasite. From the questionnaire distributed, 30 (20%) of the students were treated for malaria every 3months, 20(13.3%) every 6 months, 24 (16%) before resuming school, and 76(50.7%) only treated when they developed clinical malaria. Two hundred and two (202) mosquito larvae were collected from their breeding habitats during larval sampling and two hundred and four (204) adult mosquitoes of different species were collected indoors. However there was no significant difference between the number of rooms sampled and the number of mosquitoes collected at 5% level of significance (x2tab > x2cal; 9.488 >6.307).

Conclusion: The study revealed that the students living in the hostels were highly exposed to malaria infection and a host of other mosquito borne diseases. The abundance of Anopheles gambiae sensu lacto in the university environment and the high prevalence rate of malaria is an indication of continuous transmission in the area. Therefore re-echoed awareness campaigns on the danger of malaria infection and its prevention and control through personal and environmental management should be carried out to educate all students especially those who attended medical check-ups during registration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with Level of Patient Activation and Its Role to Glycemic Control among Adults with Type II Diabetes Attending Diabetic Clinic at Hospitals in Addis Ababa

Selomon Assefa, Kedir Endris, Demeke Ashencho, Mebrahtu Eyasu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i430170

Introduction: Lifestyle interventions as supper arranging and exercise assume a significant job in a Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) program. The impact of poly-pharmacy on way of life changes, for example, nourishment and exercise isn't surely known. Deciding and evaluating patient's dimension of enactment and its association with physical action level, supper arranging, and poly-pharmacy in patients with Type II diabetes is a significant standard for Diabetes Self-Management mediations.                

Objective:  The aim of this study was to determine patient activation levels and associated factors among type II diabetic patents attending diabetic clinic at hospitals in Addis Ababa.    

Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional examination configuration was led. This investigation was led on 423 Type II diabetic patients going to diabetic facilities at emergency clinics in Addis Ababa. Study members were chosen by utilizing orderly arbitrary examining procedure. A pre-tried organized survey was utilized to gather the information. Understanding Activation Measure (PAM-13) was utilized to survey tolerant actuation levels. Information were entered and dissected utilizing SPSS rendition 23 for windows. Concentrate members' qualities were portrayed as far as mean (Standard deviation) and recurrence (extent). Bivariate examination and various calculated relapse investigations were completed to recognize free factors related with patient enactment among sort II diabetes patients.        

Results: The mean (SD) age of the study participants was 55.7(±9.8) years.  Majority of the study participants, 319 (77.8%) had low meal planning knowledge, 62.4% of patients involved in low physical activity and 82.2% had poor glycemic control. About 75.6% of the patients had low activation and the remaining 24.4% had high activation. The independent factors associated with lower activation were Illiterate educational status (AOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.5-3.3), low physical activity (AOR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.9), low meal planning knowledge (AOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4), chronic comorbidities (AOR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9) and poor glycemic control (AOR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.4–7.5).

Conclusions: The findings revealed that majority of diabetic II patients had low activation; indicating patients had low knowledge and understanding regarding the influence of lifestyle in diabetes management. Illiterate educational status, low physical activity, low meal planning knowledge, chronic comorbidities and poor glycemic control were significantly associated with lower activation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Larvicidal Activities of Some Ethnobotanicals from North Eastern Nigeria against Culicine (Dipera: Culicidae) Mosquito

J. S. Ngwamah, R. S. Naphtali

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i430171

This study was aimed to investigate the insecticidal activities of some selected ethnobotanicals against culicine mosquitoes. Various part of plant material collected were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus Methanol and Petroleum ether were used as solvents. Quantitative phytochemical Analysis for the crude extracts was carried out for the presence of azadrachtin, terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycoside, steroids phenol and flavonoids. The larvicidal potentials of the various crude extracts were then tested against culicine mosquitoes.

More yields of phytochemical constituents (80.78 mg) were found in total of 900 g used for methanol extracts as compared to 57.64 mg found in 900 g used in petroleum ether extracts. All the extracts of methanol and petroleum ether of the different plant used showed larvicidal potentials against culicine 3rd instar larvae. The LC50 of the methanol extracts (37.32, 38.52, 42.05, 45.91, 68.78, 126.56, and 141.73 ppm) of E. globulus, O. kilimanscharicum, H. suaveolens, Neem seeds, neem stem leave and orange peels respectively, are far better than their counterparts of petroleum ether extracts with LC50 (100.25, 115.53, 145.88, 68.44, 114.55, 46.79, and 175.07 ppm). The larvicidal effect of individual isolates of alkaloids, tannin, saponins, azadirachtin, phenol and steroids demonstrated larvicidal potentials against 3rd instar larvae of culicine, where, terpenoids, flavonoids and glycoside showed no larvicidal potentials against culicine larvae. The larvicidal potential of each plant depend on the number of active ingredients and quantity available in each extract.

In conclusion, the present plant extracts have potentials for development of new and safe control products for culicine mosquitoes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein, Tumour Necrosis Factor - alpha with Liver Enzymes in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

Isaac Oluwole Adediji, Adeolu Sunday Oluremi, Ayodele Ademola Adelakun, Paul Olusegun Adepoju, Dominion Akingbade, Daniel Ayandiran Aina, Joshua Ademiluyi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i430172

Aim: This study investigated the relationship between small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Duration of Study: June 2018- March 2019.

Subjects and Methods: Sixty (60) participants were recruited for this cross sectional study. They comprised thirty (30) clinically diagnosed chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients attending clinic at a tertiary hospital in Osogbo, Osun state, Nigeria. Thirty (30) apparently healthy volunteers were recruited as control subjects after fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Anthropometric measurements were performed using standard method. About 6mL of venous blood was collected from each study participant, serum was extracted and kept at -80oC until time of analysis. Small dense LDL, TNF-α, AST, ALT and ALP were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric method as appropriate. Data analysis was done using Student’s t-test for comparison of variables and Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables. P–value less than 0.05 was considered significant.  

Results: SdLDL, TNF-α, AST and ALT were significantly elevated in HBV patients when compared with the control subjects (P<0.05). SdLDL had a significant positive correlation with TNF-α (P=0.03), AST (P=0.01), ALT (P=0.00). TNF-α had a significant positive correlation with AST (P=0.02) and ALT (P=0.00).

Conclusion: This study revealed a noteworthy positive relationship between sdLDL, TNF-α and hepatic aminotransferases in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Retrospective Study of Intestinal Parasite among Patients in the Ho Teaching Hospital, Ghana

Maxwell Afranie Appiah, Ebenezer Enam Adzaklo, Eric Agboli

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i430173

Aim: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among patients who visit the Ho Teaching Hospital for stool examination from 2012 to 2016.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ho Teaching Hospital, August 2017 to January 2018.

Methodology: The hospital’s laboratory records were reviewed. Patients’ data were recorded using a well-designed data collection tool. Data was analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0.

Results:  A total of 7045 patients visited the Ho Teaching Hospital laboratory for routine stool examination within the five-year period. From the 7045 patients, 703 of them were infected with at least one of the intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection for the five-year period was 10.0%. Intestinal flagellates (90.0%) were the most predominant intestinal parasites, and Entamoeba histolytica recorded 5.7%. Hookworm (0.9%) was the most prevailing soil-transmitted helminth. Ascaris lumbricoides (0.1%) and Schistosoma mansoni (0.1%) were the least recorded parasites. Highest infection was among patients within age group 20 to 29 years. However, age groups below 10 years recorded low infection. This study showed that age was a risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasite infection (P≤0.001).

Conclusion: Intestinal parasitic infections were recorded among patients who visited the Ho Teaching Hospital. However, most of the patients were infected with intestinal flagellates. Various stakeholders should provide advance techniques in laboratory investigation of stool samples to enhance accurate diagnosis. Sensitization of the public about the dangers of intestinal parasites should also be undertaken by the stakeholders.