Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Ocular Axial Length and Body Mass Index in a Black Population

I. N. Aprioku, C. S. Ejimadu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i130175

Aim: To determine the correlation between Ocular axial length (AL) and body mass index (BMI) in a black population.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out in Port Harcourt City LGA, Nigeria. Subjects were selected using multistage random sampling with inclusion criteria of Visual Acuity > 6/18, age greater than 18 years with no history of past ocular surgeries or trauma. Socio demographic data was obtained through an interviewer based structured proforma. Data obtained included age, sex, tribe, occupation and level of education. Weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured using a standard height and weight automated scale (SECA 769,220). Ocular examinations done included visual acuity, applanation tonometry and ophthalmoscopy. Axial length (AL) was measured using Amplitude (A) scan ultrasonography (SONOMED PACSCAN 300AP). Data obtained from one eye of the subjects were analyzed using SPSS (Version 17), and p value was set at ≤ 0.05.

Results: Four hundred and sixty six (466) subjects participated in the study made up of two hundred and twelve (212) males (45.5%) and two hundred and fifty four (254) females (54.5%) with M: F ratio of 1:1.2. The age range was 18-92 years and mean age of the subjects studied 43.0±14.2 years. Findings revealed mean AL, Body Mass Index, Height and Weight to be (23.2±1.0 mm), (26.9±6.2 kg/m2), (162.5±9 cm) and (70.5±14.8 kg) respectively. The mean AL was greater in males than females. There was no statistically significant relationship between age and axial length. There was a statistically significant relationship between height and AL in both gender with AL increasing by 0.035 mm (p=0.001, r=0.261) with one centimeter change in height in males and 0.025 mm (p=0.001, r=0.2680) in females and between AL and level of education (p=0.001). There was also a statistically significant (0.009 mm) increase in AL per one kilogramme change in weight in females (p=0.0001, r=0.188). Males had longer AL than females in all the BMI groups with a statistically significant difference found between the different BMI classes.

Conclusion: This study noted that although there is no statistically significant relationship between AL and BMI, there are significant relationships between AL and height and weight respectively. Estimated AL in mm= 16.91 + 0.039 (height in cm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Retrospective Study on Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Co-infection among Patients Attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Gwagwalada and Gwarimpa General Hospital

B. Balarabe-Musa, H. R. Muhammad, H. Momo, L. Louis

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i130176

The study was carried out to determine rate of co-infection between tuberculosis infection and HIV infection in the study population. Record books on tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) tests for 15years from year 2002 to 2017 were obtained; data includes the sex and age of the patients at two General Hospitals in Abuja Nigeria to investigate co-infection of the two lethal diseases. A total of 1,412 cases were obtained from University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH) and 392 cases from Gwarimpa General Hospitals. At UATH 536 were positive for both TB and HIV showing a co-infection rate of 37.9%. Among them 275(42.64%) were males and 261(34.03%) were females. Majority 253(48.75) belong to the age group 0f 31-45 years. While at GGH 115 were positive for both TB and HIV, thus showing a co-infection rate of 29.34%, among them 52(32.10) were males and 63(27.40) were females, majority 55(37.93) also belong to the age group of 31-45 years. The high rate of co-infection between Tuberculosis and HIV infections recorded in this study calls for urgent actions to check the lethal combination, especially through the implementation of the WHO’s policy on collaborative TB/HIV activities to reduce the burden of TB among HIV infected individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of HCV and HIV Antibodies in Tuberculosis Confirmed Patients in Ekiti State, Nigeria

O. Ojo-Bola, T. Fagbuyiro, T. O. Korode, A. A. Adebowale, C. T. Omisakin

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i130177

This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HCV and HIV antibodies in TB confirmed patient attending the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Ido Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. A total of 500 tuberculosis confirmed patients were selected by random sampling. Their blood samples were collected and assayed for HCV and HIV antibodies using Clinotech diagnostic Anti-HCV detection test and Abbot determine HIV ½  in conjunction with Chembio HIV ½ STAT-PAK assay kit respectively. Out of 500 TB patients tested, 10(2.0%), 21(4.2%) and 3(0.6%) tested positive to HCV, HIV, and HCV/HIV antibodies respectively. Age group 36-45 was the most prevalence of HCV, HIV, and HCV/HIV antibodies with P-value 0.000, 0.000 and 0.002 respectively. The associated risk factors were alcoholism 14 (45.2%), being the highest identified risk factor, followed by previous unprotected sex, multiple sex partner, previous blood donor, previous transfusion, tattoos, and history of the Sexually transmitted disease being the least risk factor 3 (9.68%). The degree of disparity in regards to HCV, HIV and co-exists of HCV/HIV antibodies between 302 male and 198 female that participated were not statistically significant. (P-value 0.531, 0.549,and 0.824 for HCV, HIV and HCV/HIV antibodies respectively).These findings confirmed that both HCV and HIV can co-exist in TB patients, and may increase the risk of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity, if overlooked, there will be a greater risk for TB patients, and these infections will continue to spread through the associated risk factors. However, in managing the TB patients, there is a need to screen for Anti- HCV, as it has been for HIV antibody.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Pattern of Cancer Cases in the Rest of Cross River State Not Covered by the Calabar Cancer Registry between 2004 and 2013

G. A. Ebughe, M. A. Inyama, T. I. Ugbem, D. E. Ushie

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i130178

Aims: This study aims to find out the prevalence of cancer in the different age groups in the rest of Cross River state not covered by the Calabar cancer registry.

Study Design: Descriptive retrospective study involving a trend analysis of the cancers incident in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, and persons from the rest of Cross River State not covered by the Calabar cancer registry. Such cases as occurred between 1st of January 2004 to December 31st, 2013 were included.

Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Pathology, University of Calabar Teaching hospital; between April and May 2019.

Methodology: A trend analysis of cancer cases from the rest of Cross River State outside the range of the Calabar cancer registry over the period was studied.

Results: Nine hundred and forty-one (941) cases of cancer were seen outside Calabar in Cross River State, within January 2004 and December 2013. Mean age was 49.18 ± 18.9 years, ranging from 1 to 100 years, and female: male ratio was 1: 0.97. The commonest age range cancer occurred is 40 to 64 years overall, 40 to 64 years in males and 40 to 64 years in females. The commonest cancers sites were breast cancer (21.9%), prostate (21.3%), lymphohematopoietic (9.2%). The commonest cancers in males were prostate (43.1), lymphohematopoietic (12.9%), soft tissue (11.4%). In females' breast 41.1% and cervix, 15.9% were the dominant sites. Cancer in the 0 to 17 age range was remarkably similar and was dominated by lymphohematopoietic sites, soft tissue, eye and urinary system. Cancer in the older ages 65 years and above is overwhelmingly dominated by prostate 60% followed by breast 18%.

Conclusion: Cancer in the rest of Cross River State is dominated by breast, prostate and cervical sites. This is like the GLOBOCAN estimates for Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maternal Vitamin D Status and Risk of Preeclampsia in Abuja, Nigeria

Kate Ifeoma Omonua, Olutunde Onafowokan, Nathaniel Adewole, Maxwell Nwegbu, Aliyu Yabaji Isah, Odiase Special Omonua

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i130179

Aim: To determine the relationship between maternal serum 25(OH) D concentrations and development of preeclampsia.

Study Design: A cross sectional comparative study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, between March 2016 and February 2017.

Methodology: We included 55 women with preeclampsia and 55 healthy women. Data obtained included sociodemographic characteristics, clothing style and duration of exposure to sun light.  ELISA method was used for evaluation of serum vitamin D levels.

Results: The prevalence of VD deficiency in the population was 15%, while 16.8% and 73% of the participants had insufficient and normal levels respectively. The prevalence of VD deficiency in women with preeclampsia was 20.4% while that in healthy pregnant women was 9.4% (P=.19). The mean serum 25-OH-D level of women with pre-eclampsia was significantly lower than that of healthy women (34.5±14.9 vs. 43.5±15.1, P = .003). Preeclamptic women with vitamin D insufficiency delivered at a higher gestational age than those with vitamin D deficiency (37.67(2.77) weeks vs. 33.55(2.38) weeks respectively, P = .007). In the adjusted analysis of cases with vitamin D defficiency, the odds of developing preeclampsia was not statistically significant [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27, CI = 0.99-10.83, P =.05].  However, the odds of developing preeclampsia in women with Vitamin D insufficiency was statistically  significant (OR = 3.20, CI = 1.02–10.06,  = 0.046).

Conclusion: In conclusion, an association between vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia was not demonstrated in this study. The results however suggest that maternal vitamin D insufficiency in late pregnancy is an independent risk factor for preeclampsia.