Open Access Case Study

Assessment of Drinking Water Catchments in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon

Malika Esembeson, Rene Nkenyi, Ndefon Peter, Kamgno Joseph, Njunda Anna Longdoh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i330189

Background: Without readily available water in sufficient quantity, and pathogen-free, man's progress is hindered. Globally, 2 billion people use sources of drinking water that are faecally contaminated and not appropriate for consumption. In Cameroon and specifically in fako division, due to acute piped drinking water shortage, the population uses alternative sources (springs and boreholes). Waterborne diseases are the second and third leading weekly epidemiological disease under surveillance in Fako. To find out some predisposing factors of waterborne diseases in Fako , and  to meet up with Sustainable Development Goal (SDG): 6.1, by 2030, we sort to start with an assessment of the drinking water catchments in Fako, as we found paucity of studies.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to May 2018 using quantitative and qualitative approaches. An adapted WHO checklist was used for observations around catchment, then a risk assessment was done with a semi quantitative approach. Qualitative data was collected through   Focus Group Discussions and In-depth interviews.

Results: Of the 15 water catchments assessed, none of them met all WHO recommendations. We found that 60% have anthropogenic activities at less than 100meters from the catchments with progressive reduction in water volume and risk of contamination. Meanwhile 20% were open springs and consumers fetch water with feet and container deepen in source, while 13.3% were surface water. There was no integrated catchment management with stakeholders in Fako Division.

Conclusion:  None of the catchments met WHO recommendations. An integrated drinking water management team and a periodic monitoring of these catchments is imperative.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitudinal Disposition and Management Perception among Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Selected Hospitals in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Funmilola Oyelami, Chidinma Emma Ukoha, Oluwatomi Olunuga, Ademola Adelekan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i330185

Background: Diabetes mellitus is an emerging metabolic disorder of the 21st century and has continued to attract the attention of health practitioners, as it continues to decrease the efficiency of its victims without any promise of change in the near or far future if more is not done to avert the progressing chronic condition.

Aim: To determine the attitudinal disposition and management perception among diabetics Mellitus patients in selected hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was a cross sectional survey design guided by a behavioral theory.

Place and Duration of Study: using purposive sampling, the study was carried out among diabetic patient attending University College Hospital, Ring-Road State Hospital and Oluyoro Catholic Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State. 

Materials and Methodology: A systematic random sampling was used to select 600 out of 2,115 diabetes patients receiving treatment at University College Hospital, Ring-Road State Hospital and Oluyoro Catholic Hospital. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection on respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics, attitudinal disposition and management perception. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.

Results: Mean age of the respondents was 63.9 ± 8.6 years, 75.3% were married and 62.7% were females. Majority (94.0%) of the respondents had a positive attitude towards compliance with management of DM. Majority (91.5%) were of the attitude that it is not necessary for people living with DM to do regular exercise as exercise will not make them to breakdown and 97.0% were of the attitude that diabetic patients cannot take any amount of alcohol beverages he/she wants. Respondents’ mean perception score was 21.8 ± 4.8 and 69.2% had a positive perception to management of DM. most (69.2%) of the respondents were of the perception that DM is a lifelong disease and can only be controlled but cannot be cured.

Conclusion: Many of the respondents had appropriate perceptions needed to cope with the disease. However, the positive attitude sustenance demonstrated by the respondent should be promoted if compliance with the management of DM must be ensured.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship of the Self-perception of Lifestyle with Level of Physical Activity in People with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Briseida Mayel Perez-Avelino, Nicolás Padilla-Raygoza, Verónica Benitez-Guerrero, María Luisa Sánchez Padilla, Vicente Beltrán-Campos, María de Lourdes García-Campos

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i330186

Objective: To determine the relationship of the perception of lifestyle with the level of physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes and without type 2 diabetes.

Study Design: Analytical cross-sectional observational study in Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico.

Methodology: Sample composed of 100 people with type 2 diabetes and 100 people without type 2 diabetes, the lifestyle questionnaire and IPAQ questionnaire were used. Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic variables; it was calculated Chi-square test and Odds Ratio.  To demonstrate the statistical significance of results, the value of P was set at .05. Statistical analysis was performed in STATA 13.0 ®.

Results: In patients with Type 2 Diabetes predominated females, married, who never went school and elementary and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; among patients without Type 2 Diabetes, predominant males, singles, went school or university, BMI ≥25 kg/m2; no relationship was found between lifestyle perception and level of physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes (X² = 0.0022 gl 1 P = .96) neither it was found a significant relationship between lifestyle perception and level of physical activity in adults without type 2 diabetes (X² = 5.23 gl 1 P = .02 RM = 2.85 95% CI = 0.80 to 10.4).

Conclusion: The results show that self-perception of lifestyle and physical activity is different in people with less age, more schooling, males.

Open Access Original Research Article

Presence of Bluetongue Virus Antibodies in Cattle and Sheep in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria

Oluwayelu Donald Oladimeji, Anosike Ignatius Kelechi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i330187

Bluetongue is an infectious, arthropod-borne viral disease principally affecting ruminants. The occurrence of bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies in sheep and cattle from backyard farms, cattle markets and abattoirs in Ogun and Osun states of Nigeria was investigated. Three hundred and forty (340) plasma samples comprising 205 from sheep and 135 from cattle were collected from March to September 2017, noting the sex, breed and age of the animals. The samples were screened with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosurbent assay (ELISA) kit that detects BTV antibodies in ruminant plasma or serum. All cattle tested from both states were positive for BTV antibodies giving a seroprevalence of 100% while 95% seroprevalence was obtained for sheep. In Ogun state, prevalence of 90.5% and 98% were obtained for male and female sheep respectively while 95.6% and 95% prevalence were also obtained for male and female sheep respectively in Osun state. Based on breed, 94%, 95%, 95% and 96% prevalence were obtained for Yankasa, Balami, Ouda and West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep respectively in Ogun state while 93%, 95.5%, 100% and 93% prevalence were obtained for Yankasa, Balami, Ouda and WAD sheep respectively in Osun state. Furthermore, prevalence of 92% and 96.7% were obtained for age groups of ≤ 1 year and > 1 year respectively in Ogun state, while prevalence of 96% and 94.7% were obtained for age groups of ≤ 1 year and > 1 year respectively in Osun state. Since vaccination against bluetongue disease is not practiced in Nigeria, the detection of high prevalence of BTV antibodies observed in apparently healthy animals in this study indicates natural, albeit subclinical, infection with the virus and sustained activity of the Culicoides vector. These findings suggest that bluetongue is widespread in southwestern part of Nigeria and highlight the need for continuous surveillance of the disease in the country as well as isolation, identification and characterisation of currently circulating BTV strains in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatiotemporal Trend of Waterborne Disease in Enugu Urban, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study

Onyekachi J. Okpasuo, Fabian C. Okafor, Ifeanyi Aguzie, Chika Ikele, Joy Anunobi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i330188

Many water sources in Nigeria are contaminated with pathogens. Several towns have witnessed outbreaks of enteric diseases due to poor hygienic standards of available drinking water. This research was undertaken to determine the spatiotemporal trends of waterborne diseases (WBDs) in Enugu, Nigeria using retrospective records from January 2013 to December 2016. A total of 18,495 individual reported cases of WBDs were analysed. The analysis showed an increasing temporal trend from 2013 to 2015, with a slight decrease in 2016. Typhoid fever had the highest frequency (48.9%) followed by diarrhoea (40%) and then dysentery (11.1%). The highest (88.9%) incidence of waterborne diseases per 10,000 peoples was from Enugu North followed by Enugu South (62.6%) and least was Enugu East (44.4%). Highest occurrence of typhoid fever and dysentery per 10,000 peoples was also found in Enugu North while Enugu East had the highest occurrence of diarrhoea in the four-year trends. WBDs were highest between January and March and least in July. The months with peak occurrence of WBDs falls within the dry season. The importance of having drinking water in both quality and quantity cannot be overestimated as portrayed in this study. Drinking water quality in Enugu urban is very poor especially during the dry season. This suggests a need for setting up a modality to tackle challenges of limited water supply during the dry seasons of the year and to educate the populace on household water treatment and storage method.