Open Access Original Research Article

First Evidence of West Nile Virus in Hodeidah, Yemen: Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

Qais Yusuf, Isra'a Al-Masrafi, Anas Al-Mahbashi, Asma'a Al-Areeqi, Mohammed Amood Al-Kamarany, Ali S. Khan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i430190

Introduction: West Nile Virus (WNV) infection is an important arthropod-borne zoonosis viral disease. This virus is neglected in Yemen especially in Hodeidah.

Aim of the Study: The purpose of this study was to detect WNV infection, determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics within febrile patients in Hodeidah city and to determine some risk factors associated with WNV infection.

Materials and Methods: 136 febrile patients in a hospital base study were diagnosed in Center of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases (CTMID), Authority of General Al-Thawara Hospital, Hodeidah, Yemen from January of 2017 to December of 2017. WNV infection was detected by enzyme linkage immune sorbent assay (ELISA) on serum samples.

Results and Discussion: The results showed that 5 cases (3.67%) were WNV – positive namely IgM that was detected in winter and spring seasons, the most prevalent antibodies of WNV were IgG namely 75 cases (55.14%). Most common symptoms were fever, headache, fatigue, weakness, arthralgia, myalgia and photophobia. The treatment based on the intravenous therapy (IV) with anti-pyritic, plasma in some cases and all cases were recovered while mortality rate was 00%.

Conclusion: WNV was detected in Hodeidah which placed in Tehama "western Yemen", as first time by our preliminary study that confirmed the evidence of WNV IgM and IG antibodies presence on 2017, in order to increase safety of diagnosis of febrile diseases, it is essential to continue surveillance of this emerging infection, suggesting that this emergence has been transported by migratory birds from wintering areas to Tehama region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Wad Medani City, Gezira State, Sudan

M. Y. Mohamed, A. D. Abakar, B. A. Talha, Salah Eldin G. Elzaki, Y. A. Mohammed, Usama Abdalla Elsharief, K. A. Mohamed Ahmed, B. Y. M. Nour

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i430191

Plasmodium falciparum considered as the most serious form of species causes malaria compared with other species. Diagnosis of falciparum malaria in Sudan remain a major problem, the laboratory diagnosis depends solely on microscopy and RDTs. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a molecular technique done in isothermal temperature using simple, inexpensive instruments for detection of falciparum malaria. The aim of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of P. falciparum and compare with microscopic detection. A cross sectional hospital based study conducted on 220 blood samples collected from participants suspected to have falciparum malaria attending Wad Medani Teaching Hospitals and 26 healthy participants during the period November 2018 to January 2019. Thick blood films were done and used for P. falciparum detection. The extracted DNA by TE buffer was amplified by LAMP assay targeting 18S rRNA gene. Data were analyzed using Medical calculator (MedCalc) programs (V. 16). The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive values were 99.1%, 84.6%, 53.2%, 99.8% respectively. Validation of LAMP diagnostic performance revealed that area under the curve is 0.919, while Weighted Kappa is 0.866. The study concluded that the LAMP assay had the identical diagnostic performance compared with microscopy in diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This gives a relative effortlessness application of LAMP assay in Sudan after availing the required logistics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Training Program for Family Caregivers on Home Care of Older Adults in Cameroon

Ukum Susan Ubenoh, Nahyeni Bassah, John Ngunde Palle

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i430192

Background: Family caregivers who are the primary care providers to the elderly in communities in Cameroon, specifically in the Buea health district, are not aware of available resources and lack adequate knowledge and skills on the care of the elderly. As a result, the elderly are not receiving adequate care and support which might also affect their quality of life. In line with the World Health Organization’s (WHO) strategic proposed objectives of promoting healthy aging, the aim of this study was to develop a training program for family caregivers of the elderly.

Methods: An exploratory, cross-sectional study research design was employed, with the use of qualitative methods for data collection. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 key informants including nurses, social workers, community relay persons, personnel from the ministries (Public Health and Social Affairs), director of a geriatric nurse training school and directors of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) concerned with age-care who were purposively recruited. Information on the scope of practice and available resources was obtained. The sample size was determined based on data saturation. Data was transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis.

Results: Two major themes emerged from data analysis; ‘Recognise the boundary’ for the scope of practice of family caregivers which was further divided into two categories (bridge the gap and shared responsibilities)’ and ‘Health and wellbeing’ as all available resources were aimed at improving the health and wellbeing of the elderly.

Conclusion: The training program should include a pyscho-educational intervention with information on available resources such as: Geriatric nurses and social centers, the  scope of practice for family caregivers which includes: Assistance with Activities of Daily Living & Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Psychosocial care, strategies to  involve  elderly persons in various activities and the creation of age- friendly environments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Reported Critical Values and Their Associated Clinical Conditions in a Clinical Chemistry Laboratory of a Tertiary Health Institution in Nigeria

T. O. Olusanya, O. A. Ladipo, N. E. Okonkwo, J. N. Ngozi, V. O. Joseph, N. S. Nnadozie, U. P. Okafor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i430193

Studies involving critical values in recent time have mainly dwelt on compliance to timely reporting as well as the volumes of the individual reported critical analytes. There is paucity of data however, especially in this environment, on the relationships that exist between reported critical biochemical analytes and the presenting clinical conditions of the patients as at the time of the laboratory investigation. This study therefore sought to investigate such relationships.

This study is a retrospective study of data obtained in the year 2018 from the critical value register of the Department of Chemical Pathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital Ilisan-Remo, Ogun state, Nigeria. Data obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Relationship between variables was determined using Chi-square Test.

In the year under review, a total of 270 critical values from various biochemical analytes were obtained; out of which 34.0% was potassium, representing the highest occurrence. Calcium had the highest proportion of its tests from the year having critical outcomes (2.2%) compared to other biochemical parameters. Kidney disease was the most frequently reported clinical condition (25.1%) with critical values of biochemical analytes. This study also showed a strong statistical association (p = 0.000) between diabetic ketoacidosis and critical levels of hyperkalemia, critical outcomes of hypocalcaemia and infection/sepsis as well as critical level of azotemia and pregnancy related complications.

This study has shown potassium as the most reported critical biochemical analyte which occurred mostly as cases of critical hyperkalemia. This was associated with a high burden of kidney diseases among the study population. The study has also drawn attention to the need for immediate and constant check of blood calcium and urea levels in patients that have sepsis and pregnancy related complications respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Practices and Perception of Malaria and Its Home Management Using Artemicinin-based Combined Therapy (ACT) among Mothers of Under-five

B. E. Akinwalere, I. O. Longe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v38i430194

Malaria is a serious public health problem, yet preventable and treatable. The disease is one of the world’s highest rates of all cause of mortality for children under five, and about one in six children die before their fifth birthday. Hence, mothers of under-five and caregiver have a pivotal role to play in tackling this issue by improving their knowledge and skills concerning the treatment, prevention, and control using the appropriate approach. This study was carried out to assess knowledge, practices, and perception of malaria and its home management using Artemicinin-based Combined Therapy (ACT) in Yemetu community of Ibadan North Local Government. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey involving the use of Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to facilitate the sampling and interview of respondents. This included recruiting all the mothers of under-five in Yemetu community who gave consent for the study. Four hundred (400) mothers of under-five in Yemetu community consented to participate in the study and were selected. A validated semi-structured questionnaire interviewed and self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection and respondents were assessed on a 62-points knowledge scale, 5-points practice scale, and 17-points perception scales. Knowledge score ≤21 were rated poor, scores ≥22≤42 fair and scores ≥43 were considered good. Practice score ≤3 was recorded as poor practice while scores ≥3 good practice. Perception scores ≤ 9 were considered unfavourable perception and scores ≥ 9 were considered favourable. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data at 95% level of significance.

Respondents’ mean age was 29.9 ± 7.0 years and the majority of them (91.1%) of them were Yoruba. The majority (91.0%) of them were married and (91.1%) were Yorubas. Only (23.0%) correctly identified plasmodium as a cause of malaria. The correctly mentioned signs and symptoms of simple malaria were; cold (89.3%), body ache (91.3%) and fever (88.5%). The fairly corrected home management practice steps include; Exposure of baby to fresh air, administration of paracetamol, and then provision of coartem (2.6%) and bathing the baby, use of paracetamol and administration of coartem (1.3%). Negative perception shown by the respondents includes: Only (15.0%) believed that malaria is a disease of the poor and preference of herbal medicine to medical medicine for treating children at home when they have malaria episode because it is cheaper (19.8%). Overall, (2.9%) had poor knowledge, the majority (87.3%) had a fair knowledge, and 9.8% had good knowledge. There are several gaps in the respondents’ knowledge relating to malaria and its management in under-five. Therefore, there is a need for peer education/training approach in this regard to upgrading mothers' knowledge and skills concerning the treatment, prevention, and control of malaria.