Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Polyparasitism in Oju, Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

J. O. Akor, E. A. Omudu, V. U. Obisike, G. N. Imandeh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v39i230200

Intestinal and urinary parasitic infections remain an important public health problem in the tropics where poor hygiene and sanitation are a norm rather than an exception.  This study was designed to determine the prevalence and distribution of polyparasitic infections and to determine the impact of health education and treatments .Stool and urine samples from 350 participants were analyzed using macroscopic and microscopic direct stool examination of wet and Lugol’siodine preparations and Formal-ether concentration techniques and microscopic examination of simple centrifuged samples of urine. Out of the 350 participants, 101were infected with intestinal parasites with the male and female participants having 29 (66.0%), 41 (71.9%) prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, 9 (20.5%), 8(14%) Eschericia coli, 2 (4.6), 6(10.5%) Trichomonas hominis and4 (9.1%), 2 (3.5%) Chilomastix mesnilli respectively. Out of the infected 101 participants, 14 of them had co-infection (polyparasitism). The result of polyparasitism in the Local Government is not significant (p>0.05).The overall infection before health education and treatment was high and least after health education and treatment 0(0%) (p<0.05). The results of this study indicated improper hygiene and sanitation conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lateral Soft Tissue Neck X-ray a Tool for the Otorhinolaryngology Surgeon

Ibekwe Matilda Uju, Oghenekaro Edirin

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v39i230201

Background: Management of aerodigestive emergencies can prove a challenge especially in this sub-Saharan region where there is a dearth of specialized equipment. In some areas, a plain radiograph may be the only investigative tool readily available to the surgeon. It is routinely done in most of these cases. In our environment health care is often financed by the patients through out of pocket expenses since most do not have health insurance. Affordability of a particular treatment becomes paramount. This study, therefore, is aimed at assessing the use of lateral soft tissue neck X-ray and its reliability as a diagnostic tool in aerodigestive emergencies.

Objective: To determine the relevance or effectiveness of plain radiograph of the lateral soft tissue neck in patients with upper aerodigestive emergencies and therefore its use as a tool to the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) surgeon as the first-line investigation in these patients.

Patients and Methods: It is a prospective study of all patients that presented to the ENT surgery department of UPTH from April 2018 to April 2019 with upper aerodigestive emergencies. Patients who presented in the ENT clinic, accident and emergency department, children`s emergency wards and the clinics with upper aerodigestive emergencies were recruited in this study. All the patients had X-ray lateral soft tissue of the neck done on presentation and the results were then compared with the final operative findings in the operation theatre. Some patients had also chest radiograph done however; the diagnosis was done based on the lateral soft tissue neck finding. Patients that had radiologic investigation other than radiograph of the lateral soft tissue neck as the main investigative tool were excluded from the study. The radiologist opinion was obtained for all the radiographs as a routine. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 20 and presented in simple statistical tables.

Results: Sixteen patients were studied. Males were 14(87.5%) while females were 2(12.5%). Age range was from 1.5 to 77 years with children comprising only 31.25% of the study population. The commonest presenting complaint was voice change 68.75%. Positive findings on the x-ray neck were seen as soft signs in 62.5% and radio-opacity in 18.75%. In n=14(87.5%) the lateral neck x-ray positive findings were corroborated by the operative findings. The tool has a specificity of 100% for both foreign body inhalation/ingestion and laryngeal tumour but the sensitivity of 80% in laryngeal tumours but 100% for the foreign body.

Conclusion: Study concludes that lateral soft tissue neck x-ray was found to be a good and useful tool in the diagnosis of a good number of upper aerodigestive emergencies such as foreign body ingestion/inhalation and patients with upper airway obstruction caused by laryngeal tumours and some infective conditions such as a retropharyngeal abscess.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Cell Profiling of Malaria Patients Attending Gaya General Hospital, Kano State, Northern Nigeria

M. U. Ali, A. A. Panda, S. M. Yahaya, U. A. Umar, M. S. Inuwa, Y. S. Ajingi, S. Idris

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v39i230202

Background: Changes in blood cell profile were common findings in malaria. In the rural community of Kano State, Nigeria, information on haematological changes in human malaria was scanty in spite of their role in the pathophysiology of malaria. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine blood cell profiles in malaria patients attending a rural hospital in malaria-endemic region.

Methods: Blood samples (3 ml each) were collected in EDTA-containers from 150 randomly selected outpatients attending Gaya General Hospital, screened for malaria using RDT kit (CareStart Malaria HRP 2, Access Bio Inc., USA) based on Histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP-2), and blood cell profiles determined using automated Sysmex haematologic analyser. Data on socio-demographics and medical history related to the study objectives, such as taking antimalarial regimen and/or haematinic, and direct involvement in blood transfusion, were obtained by questionnaire administration supplemented with oral interview.

Findings: The study revealed a malaria prevalence of 67.33%, with highest in 11-20years (80.95%) and lowest (55.00%) in 1-10years age-groups; slightly higher in females (68.25%) than in males (66.67%) without significant difference (P<0.05). For blood parameters, malaria positive patients have a significantly lower mean PCV of 32.2% as compared to 38.18% obtained for malaria negative patients (P<0.05). The mean Hb was 10.76±2.27g/dL and 12.65±2.38g/dL (P<0.05), while WBC revealed 6.91×109/L and 6.56×109/L in malaria positive and negative patients, respectively. Platelet counts recorded 179.24×109/L and 230.47×109/L (P<0.05). Socio-demographic factors such as level of education, occupation and marital status did not significantly influence malaria prevalence.

Interpretation: Low PCV and Hb in malaria patients indicate mild anaemia due to malaria-related haemolysis. The occurrence of thrombocytopenia may be due to other underlying pathology as further studies with larger sample size are needed to ascertain the cause of low platelet counts in malaria patients in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indigenous Knowledge and Practices on Medicinal Plants Used by Local Communities of Gambella Region, South West Ethiopia

Jemberu Alemu Megenase, Ketema Tilahun Gelaye, Prem Kumar Dara

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v39i230203

Indigenous knowledge and practices on medicinal plants used by local communities of Gambella region, south west Ethiopia was conducted to investigate those potential and popular medicinal plants used for the treatment of various diseases in Gambella region. A total of 100 purposively selected inhabitants were employed in the study of which 84 were male and 16 were females. A traditional use of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural elders, Focus group discussion and through questionnaire administered to traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the study area. 81 medicinal plants were identified for the traditional treatment of both human (25) and animal (16) disease. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to shrubs 30(37.03%) followed by trees (32.10%). The result reviled that 15.2% of the remedies are prepared from root part and squeezing accounts 17(20.99%) followed by chewing 14(17.28%). The major routs of administration of traditional medicines were reported oral 50(61.73%). Urine, placental retention and milk let down accounts higher informants’ consensus factor value (0.96). The findings showed that sheferaw and leele have higher fidelity level which is 100 and 92 respectively. Various factors were recorded as the main threats of medicinal plants in the study area. In conclusion, the community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno-botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno-botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Gambella community and further research on plant species identification and chemical extraction is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differentiation and Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Causing Pulmonary Tuberculosis across North Central Nigeria

Aleruchi Chuku, Bukola Ajide, Lovett Lawson, Kayode Orule, Lillian Adogo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v39i230204

Aims: To differentiate and Characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causing pulmonary tuberculosis across North Central Nigeria

Study Design: This was a simple descriptive health-based study that involved clinically suspected tuberculosis patients who were referred to two selected General Hospitals for diagnosis in each of the states across North Central Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the North Central zone of Nigeria and it included all the seven States across North Central Nigeria using two General Hospitals per state. The study included 371 positive sputum samples drawn from 2800 suspected pulmonary TB patients between 2017 and 2018.

Methodology: A total of 371 GeneXpert positive sputa for TB were decontaminated using N Acetyl Cysteine and Sodium Hydroxide under a level 3 Bio-safety cabinet and the resulting sediment was cultured on Lowestein- Jensen (LJ) media containing glycerol and pyruvate at 37ºC in a slanted position, SD- Bioline (TB Ag MPT 64) for the differentiation of MTBC from NTM was carried out using the isolates from LJ culture. Evaluation of speciation was done using Line Probe Assay to determine the predominant species of MTBC. All the protocols used in this study followed the manufacturer’s manual strictly.

Results: A total of 371 decontaminated positive GeneXpert sputa derived from 2800 suspected PTB participants were cultured on Lowestein- Jensen (LJ) medium and 302(81.40%) was found positive while 69(18.60%) were found negative. Out of the culture positive isolates, 288 (95.36%) isolates were detected on SD-BIOLINE TB Ag MPT 64 ® assay for MTBC and 14 (4.64%) as NTM. Of the 288 MTBC, three different species were identified; 272 (94.64%) were M. tuberculosis/M. Canetti, 7 (2.43%) were M. africanum and 9(3.13) showed a no MTBC reaction band on all the samples that were analysed.

Conclusion: Differentiations of MTBC from NTM has help to re-confirm that not all symptoms of pulmonary infection are caused by MTBC but NTM are implicated due to their distribution in the environment, however, molecular characterisation method has narrow our findings down to M. tuberculosis/M. canettii as the predominant specie of MTBC circulating in the region, although, M. africaum was also detected and these two species of MTBC are the leading cause of pulmonary tuberculosis across all the North Central state of Nigeria.